(2007), the transfer effects of playing an audio game were analyzed in a sound-localization experiment in which two groups of subjects participated: a group that used generic head-related transfer functions (HRTFs
), and another group that used individualized HRTFs
Avendano, "The CIPIC HRTF
database," in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, pp.
The optional diffuse part is filtered with a diffuse field HRTF
, in order to make its magnitude response similar to the nondiffuse part.
The main disadvantages of nonindividualized HRTFs
are increased frequency of front/back reversals and more difficulty in simulating elevation (Wightman & Kistler, 1989).
revenues can only be used to finance new construction projects on new or existing highways, bridges, and tunnels.
measurements of a KEMAR dummy-head microphone (Technical report 280).
This type of error occurs frequently in localization experiments when the location of the stimulus is underspecified by the acoustic cues, which is often the case when using nonindividualized HRTFs
(Wightman & Kistler, 1989), or when head motion provides no information about source location (Wightman & Kistler, 1999).
Spatialization of the signals was achieved by (a) convolving the audio cue with a transfer function representing the transformation of the sound source by the head, torso, and pinna - the so-called head-related transfer function (HRTF
); and (b) delaying the signal in one ear relative to the other to simulate differences in arrival time for sound sources that were not located in the median sagittal plane of the listener.
The pinna cues are replications of the magnitude and phase characteristics of the head-related transfer function (HRTF
) and produce the perception of externalized sound images at a particular elevation and azimuth when presented via earphones.
Individual differences in what has become known as the head-related transfer function (HRTF
) have received ample attention in other studies (e.g., Wenzel, Arruda, Kistler, & Wightman, 1993).
A verbal audio alert signaling the proximity of another aircraft was presented either monaurally without spatial cues or binaurally with HRTF
filtering simulating a sound source at 0 [degrees] elevation and three times the azimuth of the target.