Dany Doiron, [1,2,3] Kees de Hoogh
, [2,3] Nicole Probst-Hensch, [2,3] Stephane Mbatchou,  Marloes Eeftens,  Yutong Cai,  Christian Schindler, [2,3] Isabel Fortier,  Susan Hodgson,  Amadou Gaye,  Ronald Stolk,  and Anna Hansell 
Another measure of ethical leadership used in literature was developed by De Hoogh
and Den Hartog (2008).
In addition to the extension of the friction coefficient and the stiffness proposed by Hoogh
, Schmeitz et al, first analysis results showed that good fitting results were only possible when the load and inflation pressure dependency is additionally considered for the curvature factor [E.sub.x] and shape factor [C.sub.x].
Furthermore, despotic leaders limit employees' participation in decision making as they tend to be controlling and autocratic (Aronson, 2001; De Hoogh
& Den Hartog, 2008).
Despite the wide perception that ethical leadership is a multi-faceted concept, Kalshoven, Den Hartog and De Hoogh
(2011) observed that until recently, research had not measured multiple ethical leader behaviours.
(136.) SEE, E.G., ANDRE DE HOOGH
, OBLIGATIONS ERGA OMNES AND INTERNATIONAL CRIMES: A THEORETICAL INQUIRY INTO THE IMPLEMENTATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY OF STATES passim (1996); GLEIDER I.
[7.] Elliott P, Toledano MB, Bennett J, Beale L, de Hoogh
K, Best N, et al.
[26.] Bilenko N, Brunekreef B, Beelen R, Eeftens M, de Hoogh
K, Hoek G, et al.
(1.) van Lier EA, Oomen PJ, Mulder M, Conyn-van Spaendonck MA, Drijfhout IH, de Hoogh
PA, et al.
Research has shown that there is a positive relationship between ethical leadership and OCBs (De Hoogh
& Den Hartog, 2008; Mayer et ah, 2009).
The Court observed that Article 51 cannot be invoked against non-state actors operating from the territory of another state.(Hoogh
, 2006)In this regard, Pakistan cannot be blamed for the activities of non-state actors in Afghanistan as they are not state-sponsored.
(30.) Abraham Kuyper, Eenheid (Amsterdam: De Hoogh
, 1873), 8; Abraham Kuyper, Vrijheid (Amsterdam: De Hoogh
, 1873), 8; E Voto 2:128.
Another aspect that calls for further attention is that of determining in which ways different types of leadership such as servant leadership (Liden, Wayne, Zhao, & Henderson, 2008), ethical leadership (Kalshoven, Den Hartog, & De Hoogh
, 2011), transformational leadership (Molero, Cuadrado, Navas, & Morales, 2007), authentic leadership (Moriano, Molero, & Levy Mangin, 2011), transcendental leadership (Crossan, Vera, & Nanjad, 2008) and charismatic leadership (Conger & Kanungo, 1994) influence the development of creativity in employees.