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8S, and 28S ribosomal RNAs (Ritossa and Spiegelman, 1965; Howell, 1982), they have been useful for identifying homologous chromosomes within and among cyprinid complements.
The presence of one to several univalent chromosomes or fragments at metaphase I or telophase II and anaphase II suggested the lack of full homology in the pairing of homologous chromosomes.
Chromosome colocalization events are common in cells, and one such event is meiosis: for sexual reproduction to succeed in producing viable cells all of the homologous chromosomes in the process have to, almost simultaneously, bind together in pairs.
According to researchers, the newly discovered "thermodynamic switch" not only explains how X chromosomes pair up during meiosis but also apply to a range of other cell processes that involve the recognition and pairing of DNA sequences including other homologous chromosomes.
The karyotypes of diploids and triploids have the same formula, and the relative length of homologous chromosomes from diploid and triploid M.
Acknowledgement of this fact then leads into a review of homologous chromosomes.
Similar, homologous chromosomes pair whereas dissimilar, nonhomologous chromosomes do not.
Therefore, homologous chromosomes are similar and pairing behaviour is the empirical observation needed to infer homology.
Identification of homologous chromosomes was carried out by a karyo-ideogram performed according to Spotorno (1985).
Given the karyotype differences observed in this study it is possible to conclude that even if fertilization between these two species can be achieved producing hybrids, those hybrids would be expected to have a reduced fertility because of improper synapses of not perfectly homologous chromosomes during meiosis (Freeman & Herron 2001).