In addition to Hill's criteria
, Malay and Chung found a meta-analysis of the four studies that reported "an overall relative risk of 0.22 (95% CI = 0.12, 0.39) for CPRS development with 500 mg of vitamin C per day administered for 45-50 days following the injury or surgery.
(6-7) Furthermore, Tuchin (8) recently tested the causality between CAD and SMT using Hill's criteria
, and concluded that there is no evidence that SMT is causally related to stroke.
This point is important to understanding epidemiologic studies suggesting disease associations and highlights the timelessness of considering all of Koch's postulates and Hill's criteria
of disease causality.
, which are widely recognized as a basis for inferring causality, are used to determine whether an association (risk) found in epidemiologic studies is real or artefactual, and whether the association is secondary to a real (factual) cause, i.e.
During the past decades, Bradford Hill's criteria
have played almost the same role in occupational and environmental risk assessment as Koch's postulates for microbiology (Koch 1882).