To support this argument, this study examines how the smallpox epidemic of 1780-82 affected intertribal relations on the northeastern Plains, between western Sioux groups and the semisedentary villagers, the Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras.
Part two then discusses how the "uneven" impact of that epidemic across northern Plains populations, particularly among the western Sioux bands, Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras, broke this stalemate.
In 1845, the Like-a-Fishhook village of earth-covered lodges and log cabins was established by Mandan and Hidatsa survivors and, shortly afterwards, in 1862, their numbers were further swelled by the Arikara.
Here continue to live the descendants of the Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara peoples.
Sacagawea is Hidatsa
, and translates as bird woman (Ronda, 1984, p.
When early European explorers and fur traders visited the Dakotas, they reported the sedentary, pallisaded villages of the Arikara in South Dakota, and several Mandan, Hidatsa, and Gros Ventre groups along the Missouri River in North Dakota.
The Mandan and Hidatsa villages along the Missouri River were nearby, only two days travel, even on foot.
Despite language in Native oral testimony suggesting geographical permanence and cultural immutability, groups like the Hidatsas and Mandans had been living on the Plains for perhaps less time than the Normans had occupied England.
The next three chapters focus primarily on the Mandans and Hidatsas, illustrating the evolution of these societies over the several hundred years they resided along the Missouri River, and showing how their religious traditions tied to their respective social identities.
Therefore, while her narrative is published later than Wilson's or Linderman's, it describes a tribal culture that pre-dates the Hidatsas' and Crows' white acculturation.
Such an ending could have been due to the fact that in their desert environment the Papagos did not experience the same invasion of Euro-Americans as the Crows and Hidatsas, nor were they dependent upon buffalo.
Bowers' use of first-person narratives is a strength in his work, and one for which contemporary scholars and Hidatsas can be thankful.
Parks's main contribution is his informative summary of Bowers's work, situating it both within Bowers's lifetime and the body of scholarship on Hidatsas that preceded him.
More than 50 archaeological sites at the park have revealed a period of human settlement spanning thousands of years, most recently marked by five centuries of Hidatsa earth lodge habitation.
The confluence was an ideal location for a trading post, attracting many American Indian tribes from the surrounding areas, including the Assiniboin, Crow, Mandan, Hidatsa, Chippewa, and Sioux.