Di Paolo et al., "Photochemistry of the hemiketal
form of anthocyanins and its potential role in plant protection from UV-B radiation," Tetrahedron, vol.
XLR-11 was metabolized by phase I and II enzymes in human hepatocytes; more than 25 XLR-11 metabolites were produced by hydroxylation, carboxylation, hemiketal
and hemiacetal formation, internal dehydration, and further glucuronidation of some oxidative metabolites.
Exiqon A/S (Copenhagen, Denmark) has patented a method for immobilizing a polysaccharide (PS) to a solid surface, said polysaccharide having a keto-carboxy group or a ketal or hemiketal
group corresponding thereto, e.g.
The colored oxonium ion predominates at pH 1.0, while the non-color hemiketal
is present at pH 4.5.
In water solutions, monosaccharides undergo intramolecular reactions to form cyclic hemiacetals, hemiketals
, and lactones which are in equilibrium with each other.