Over time, her role in reconciling Pope Gregory VII
(1073-1085)--the most famous among the popes she served--and future Emperor Henry IV by mediating their encounter at Canossa in 1077 consolidated as Matilda's most momentous political intervention.
The struggle was considered subversive by successive popes, beginning with Pope Gregory VII
(1523-1534), the noted ecclesiastical reformer.
One might have expected that in the wake of an age of increasing papal centralization of power, many more papal canonizations would follow -especially since a curious document from 1075 purportedly compiled by Pope Gregory VII
(1073-85) rather audaciously declared that every pope, legitimately ordained, is made a saint through the merits of St.
In order to extricate the Church from subjection to secular powers, Pope Gregory VII
wanted to strengthen the power of the papacy; he sought the help of canon law.
Celestine V in 1294 and Gregory VII
in 1415 were the only two other Pope's who resigned from their post in the history of the Church.
And the Catholic Church's effort to combat this led to the "Investiture Controversy," during which King Henry IV of Germany actually invaded Rome in 1081 and ousted Pope Gregory VII
. The "powerful" pope was ultimately forced to flee and died in defeat.
rehearses the investiture controversy between Pope Gregory VII
and Emperor Henry IV, in which the pope claimed the exclusive right to nominate bishops and even a right to depose a monarch.
The book offers various case studies to support this view: Pope Gregory VII
's strategies for managing change; shifts in governance within the Dominican order; and Biblical and church reform at the Council of Basel in 1433, which occurred in dialogue with the followers of Jan Hus, the Czech forerunner of the Protestant Reformation.
sought to enforce strict clerical celibacy, but five centuries later, the issue still challenged Paul III.
The exhibit also includes a request to annul Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon and the 'Dictatus Papae' of Pope Gregory VII
, an 11th-century script asserting the spiritual and terrestrial powers of the head of the Roman Catholic Church.
As a good Catholic he starts with St Peter although he docs present the difficulties associated with this claim and then moves on, not surprisingly, to Leo the Great, Gregory the Great, Gregory VII
(the great eleventh century reforming pontiff), Innocent III (instigator of the Fourth Crusade), Paul ill (who coped with the Reformation and called the Council of Trent), Pius IX (the liberal turned conservative who entrenched the papacy against liberal nationalism), John XXIII (another reforming Pope who called the Second Vatican Council) and John Paul II (the Polish pontiff who was in Prof.
Throughout Henry IV's reign, the aggressive attempts of the incumbent Pope, Gregory VII
, to establish papal supremacy and so place himself above the king and just below God were a source of continual conflict between pontiff and monarch.
Pope Gregory VII
(reign, 1073-1085) worked harder than most popes to enforce clerical celibacy, but he met with considerable resistance, as did those who attempted to enforce his decrees.
1074: Pope Gregory VII
excommunicated all married priests.
Hugh was appointed by Pope Gregory VII
in 1073 to administer the decrees concerning reform within the Church.