At a macro level, two major changes have included the development of

graphics calculators (through the addition of a graphics screen and many mathematical capabilities to scientific calculators) and CAS calculators (through the further addition of computer algebra systems to

graphics calculators).

For comparison, items which required the student to read data from a graph were considered to be of Type 10 ("Task requires that a representation of a

graphics calculator screen will be interpreted").

Janice, via email

Graphics calculators are capable of providing many different ways of representing mathematical concepts.

With respect to the first issue of congruency for instance, the foundation course on introductory calculus (Maths 102), which first introduced

graphics calculators in 1997, allowed calculator use in all aspects of the course, with explicit study guide statements encouraging technology use in all areas of assessment [2, p.

Forster and Mueller (2002) examined the Western Australian Calculus Tertiary Entrance Examinations [Calculus TEE] enrolments and results for 1995-2000, that is, three years before and three years after the

graphics calculator was introduced and used in the subject in that state.

Comparing the use of the

graphics calculator and scientific calculator in college algebra.

If we use a

graphics calculator in the classroom, then we can use actual data (e.

The grant will help educators learn to use the TI-92

graphics calculator, designed especially for teaching and learning mathematics.

Their fx-7000G

graphics calculator outputs plots on its LCD display and executes 82 different functions.

There is no need for a numerical calculator or a

graphics calculator when exploring properties of parallel lines and transversals; or triangles and quadrilaterals inscribed inside circles; or the perpendicular bisectors and altitudes and medians of triangles; or proving Pythagoras theorem.

A huge variety of technological aids were used in mathematics classrooms, although the

graphics calculator was ubiquitous.

In 1997, Victoria was the first state in Australia to permit the use of the

graphics calculator in grade 12 examinations [6].

The framework is used to analyse the pre-service and initial professional experiences of a novice secondary mathematics teacher in integrating computer and

graphics calculator technologies into his classroom practice.

If students are permitted to use a

graphics calculator, they will have a chance to see more aspects of mathematics, as the graphics screen is large enough to show other things than numerical relationships.

Barry Kissane and Marion Kemp, in their paper Some Calculus Affordances of a

Graphics Calculator, provide a helpful summary, with examples, of the opportunities

graphics calculators open up for helping students to understand several basic but difficult calculus concepts.