Features of follicle atresia and cystic formations were described (Figure 1): cell pyknosis, interruption of the basement membrane and thecal layers' disruption, reduction of granulosa cells
layers, presence of elongated epithelioid cells in the surface lining the follicle wall.
Follicle-stimulating hormone regulation of estradiol production: possible involvement of WNT2 and [beta]-catenin in bovine granulosa cells
Synergistic effects between FSH and 1,1 -dichloro2,2-bis(P-chlorophenyl)ethylene (P,P'-DDE) on human granulosa cell
4] production by granulosa cells
isolated from the largest ([F.
The phytoestrogen quercetin impairs steroidogenesis and angiogenesis in swine granulosa cells
in vitro .
MicroRNA 17-92 cluster regulates proliferation and differentiation of bovine granulosa cells
by targeting PTEN and BMPR2 genes.
Lin YH, Hwang JL, Seow KM, Huang LW, Chen HJ, Tzeng CR, Effects of growth factors and granulosa cell
co-culture on in-vitro maturation of oocytes.
1 Early exposure of androgens either due to environmental or genetic factors in young females can cause polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) like symptoms, which exhibits an increase in the number of growing preantral and antral follicles and an arrest of growth of follicle in midantral follicle stage, leading to antrum expansion, increased granulosa cell
degeneration and, development of cystic follicles with thin granulosa cell
The absence of ER-P results in altered gene expression in ovarian granulosa cells
isolated from in vivo preovulatory follicles.
Prolactin can also decrease progesterone production by granulosa cells
when grown in culture.
Due to high serum TNF-[alpha] concentrations, this condition can arrest follicular development via apoptosis in the granulosa cells
, resulting in follicular atresia (Sasson et al.
FMR1 protein is expressed in fetal germ cells, as well as in granulosa cells
of the mature follicle(20).
By withholding exogenous gonadotropins, mature follicles will survive for a few days, while the number of smaller follicles will reduce through atresia of granulosa cells
5 It is mainly produced and secreted by the granulosa cells
of ovarian follicles.
However, the complete development of the oocyte within the follicular structure requires continuous two-way communication between the oocyte and cumulus cells that surround it (cumulus-oocyte complex), as well as other somatic cells included in the follicle, such as theca and the granulosa cells
(Eppig et al.