In this respect, Ephedra is similar to other gnetophytes (Welwitschia and Gnetum) (Endress, 1996).
There are several reasons why the process of secretion is not clearly understood, particularly in gnetophytes. Although a functioning enzyme, i.e.
Insect pollination is certainly widespread among gnetophytes (Endress, 1996), although it may not be obligate in any Ephedra species.
Evolution and phytogeny of gnetophytes: evidence from the anatomically preserved seed cone Protoephridites eamesii sp.