For instance, Waller reports that: Louis Pasteur suppressed data that didn't support his case for the germ theory of disease
. Joseph Lister's famously clean hospital wards were anything but.
These paradigmatic eras include: (a) the Sanitary Movement, with its paradigm of the miasma theory of disease; (b) the Infectious Disease Era with its paradigm of the germ theory of disease
; (c) the Chronic Disease Era, with its paradigms of the Black Box, multifactorial causation, Host-Agent-Environment interactions, the Web of Causation, and Risk Factor epidemiology; and (d) the current Microlevel Epidemiology, with its paradigm of biophysical reductionism, in which theories of disease causation are focused on genetic, hormonal, viral and microbial etiologies (Kreiger, 1994,1999; Pearce, 1996; Susser & Susser, 1996a, 1996b).
Despite greater awareness of the importance of sanitation and the growing acceptance of the new germ theory of disease
, devastating outbreaks of yellow fever continued to ravage non-immune visitors to Africa.
Tomes, whose own research has focused on the popularization of the germ theory of disease
, has begun thinking about home economics through the history of health consumerism and information circulation.
Clan Western science support a 2,000-year-old Eastern medical system whose principles predate any real knowledge of anatomy or physiology, to say nothing of modern diagnostics and therapeutics--or even the germ theory of disease
? That question continues to be asked regardless of the fact that an estimated 1 million Americans now undergo acupuncture annually for various ailments, including menstrual cramps and nausea in pregnancy.
Can modern Western medical science support a 2,000 year-old Eastern healing system whose principles predate real knowledge of anatomy or physiology, to say nothing of modern diagnostics and therapeutics--or even the germ theory of disease
? That question continues to be asked regardless of the fact that an estimated 1 million Americans now undergo acupuncture annually for various ailments.
It is the story of Louis Pasteur [1822-1895] who gave us the "germ theory of disease
", and important knowledge not only of germs, but also viruses, sub-microscopic creatures that he also found to cause illness.
After 1865, the germ theory of disease
came into its own, Mokyr notes, and in the final two decades of the century, "researchers discovered pathogenic organisms at about the rate of...one every two years," gradually establishing how the diseases were transmitted.
Further medical improvements, associated with the germ theory of disease
, made it cheaper to govern colonial Africa.
Propounded by German physician Samuel Hahnemann, MD, in the 18th Century, before acceptance of the germ theory of disease
, homeopathy is based on three counterintuitive (most doctors would say utterly unscientific) principles.
What do the printing press and the computer, the calendar and the clock, suburban cemeteries, nuclear warheads, television, academic specialization, bureaucracies, manufacturing using interchangeable parts, and Pasteur's germ theory of disease
have in common?