This paper describes muscle scars on internal moulds of two Ordovician euomphaline gastropods
with loosely coiled, anisostrophic shells from the palaeocontinent of Baltica, contributing new morphological information from one of the major lower Palaeozoic gastropod
In previous observations, arrests of metatrochal cilia during prototrochal beat were reported for serpulid larvae (Strathmann et al., 1972; Lacalli, 1981, 1984) and sabellid larvae (Pernet, 2003) in the annelids but were not seen in larvae of two gastropods
and a bivalve (Strathmann and Leise, 1979).
mollusks (Gastropoda) the most numerous class in the Mollusca type (Linnaeus, 1758), which has about 60.000-75.000 species (Zhadin, 1926).
A second structure that can be used to determine the age of gastropods
is the operculum (plural opercula): a shield-like plate, often wholly organic, that the gastropod
uses to close off its aperture and protect the soft body tissues inside the shell from predatory attacks and in intertidal species to prevent potential desiccation.
and bivalves are also regarded as excellent sources of nutritionally important compounds such as Fatty acids, Amino acids and Sterols (2,5-7).
First, it is not certain whether the spatial patterns of predation reflect actual prey selection or whether the physical forces along the littoral zone carry different bivalve species to different locations, where they are then attacked by drilling gastropods
. Because wave energy, current strength, and input from rivers varies throughout the year, it might be possible to undertake collections of predated shells under different such conditions.
tenuis infection is generally low (i.e., < 0.1%) in gastropods
in boreal areas, as is the mean number of larvae recovered from each gastropod
, biodiversity, mollusca, Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Uran,
The bivalves and gastropods
may form up to 75 % of the beach fauna (Fig.
(slugs and snails) crawling over the droppings take in larvae, which become infective within three to four months while living inside the gastropod
Of particular note are ten new species of newly-discovered gastropods
and two new bivalves.
On the surface I have found common fossils of clams, gastropods
, shrimp tunnels and tube worms.
serve as important food web links between sediment microbial communities and higher tropic levels, playing vital roles in nutrient cycling and energy flow (Bernot and Turner, 2001; Hall et al, 2003; Thorp and Covich, 2009; Turner and Montgomery, 2009).
Four shellfish composite samples (bivalves, crustaceans, gastropods
, cephalopods) were prepared to reduce the number of samples without modification of data precision (WHO, 1985).