The cohort of free men who came to Australia after the Napoleonic Wars comprised military officials appointed to administer the penal colony, ordinary soldiers in military detachments guarding the convicts, and a number of free settlers
.(1) The society they had left was struggling with the difficulties of scaling back from war to peacetime and many of these new colonial arrivals, having weighed up their prospects in Europe, had decided to try their hand in the gamble of a new career in the colonies.(2)
The initial population were convicts and their jailers; they were not free settlers
and they had not chosen to emigrate.
Later, when free settlers
arrived in greater numbers to settle the flat plains, the surrounding hills and mountain ranges 'ensured a sanctuary for the poor where a degree of independence and freedom could long be maintained'.
In some cases these include records of members of convicts' families transported as free settlers
The statuesque Oscar-winner, who has loved Ireland ever since she filmed Far and Away in Co Kerry with ex-hubby Tom Cruise 16 years ago, added: "They came to Australia as free settlers
in the 1800s with a pioneering spirit.
* Convicts typically served their sentence building roads, bridges and buildings or for free settlers
According to this story, virtually a whole people was wilfully exterminated by the incoming British--the rulers, soldiers, convicts, and free settlers
. Various historians and other social scientists have described it as a policy of genocide, and a forerunner of what happened a century later in Hitler's Europe.
Meanwhile, other colonies developed around the continent, which Britain filled with convicts from home, as well as free settlers