We previously demonstrated in in vivo studies that GLP-1, GIP, and a DPP-4 inhibitor, respectively, prevented the acceleration of atherosclerosis via suppression of foam cell
formation regulated by CD36 and ACAT-1 in macrophages isolated from mice [3, 9].
This receptor binds oxidized phospholipids/lipoproteins and long-chain fatty acids, leading to LD formation and, as a consequence, to differentiation of macrophages to foam cells
during atherosclerotic processes [25, 26].
Zizyphus jujuba contains a variety of triterpenoids that inhibit foam cell
formation in macrophages .
Pathologically, lipid-filled macrophages (foam cells
) invade the renal parenchyma .
examined the regulation of lipids and the anti-inflammatory function exerted by AD and evaluated the underlying molecular mechanisms using ox-LDL-stimulated foam cells
derived from rat peritoneal macrophages and showed that AD markedly alleviated lipid deposition in foam cells
as it inhibited the ox-LDL-induced expression of MMP-9.
These results demonstrate that [sup.3]H-cholesterol could drain to plasma from macrophage foam cells
and was effectively absorbed in the liver, leading to a decline of [sup.3]H-cholesterol in plasma.
Histologic, histochemical and ultrastructural study of livers and lymph nodes with foamy macrophages (foam cells
HDL also prevents macrophages from turning into foam cells
and producing inflammatory molecules.
Repeated ANOVA test was used to determine the effects of darapladib on Ox-LDL, number of foam cells
, and PVAT thickness.
(80-82) Drawn by oxidized fats, macrophages from the immune system swarm into the inflamed plaque area, consume the oxidized LDL, release toxic chemicals that cause swelling and inflammation and form foam cells
. (14) These foam cells
then die, creating debris that fill the inflamed tissue and perpetuate even more inflammation.
Extracellular lipids were also visible in deeper layers in addition to intracellular lipid deposition seen in foam cells
present mostly towards the lumen.
Histological analysis showed histiocytic granulomatous infiltration with widespread paracortical necrosis of the lymph node, extensive karyorrhectic debris and scattered fibrin deposits and sheets of foam cells
. Special stains for acid fast bacilli (Ziehl-Neelsen) and fungi (Gomori's methanamine silver and periodic acid Schiff with diastase) did not reveal any micro-organisms.
They are characterized by the accumulation of foam cells
in the internal elastic membrane, while the endothelial surface is intact.
In the interstitium, numerous foam cells
could be observed.
Cholesterol granuloma (CG) is a histopathologically used term which describes numerous cholestrol clefts that are often surrounded with foreign-body giant cells, foam cells
and macrophages filled with haemosiderin.