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Cooking in aluminium vessels using fluoridated water results in formation of aluminium fluoride complex that get absorbed rapidly from intestine resulting in fluoride toxicity. [37] In this study, there is a positive correlation between DF and use of aluminium vessels for cooking.
[21] Fluoride toxicity affects spermatogenesis through different pathways, by directly inhibiting androgen receptor (AR) mRNA expression in sertoli cells and causing decrease in AR through which testosterone acts, also by reducing testicular zinc levels that impair the angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, and by reducing testosterone levels by diminishing positive signals for its production.1221 Other mechanism factors responsible for the arrest of spermatogenesis might be the lack of available proteins necessary for cell division, growth, and differentiation of germ cells and increased levels of oxidants that damage DNA.
Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity.Chem Biol Interact.
A number of studies indicate that fluoride can cau-se deleterious effects in animal liver.13-15 Widespread degenerative changes varying from ballooning of cell to necrosis and accumulation of mononuclear cells in hepatic lobules were observed in fluoride toxicity.14 It has also been reported in previous studies that the fluoride treated animals showed mononuclear cells in portal canals, and sporadic areas of necrosis within in-dividual lobules.
One of them is fluoride toxicity. Governments add fluoride to drinking municipal tap water and in Saudi Arabia, it is also added to locally bottled water to prevent tooth decay.
World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the range of 0.7-1.2 mg/L.4 However, excess ingestion of fluoride can lead to mottling of enamel or dental fluorosis and fluoride toxicity.5,6
In 2006, US National Academies of Science released a major, authoritative report on fluoride toxicity. It identified a range of other health effects of fluoride in drinking water.
The highest concentrations were in the northern region, with fluoride levels up to 7.2 ppm; this region is a densely populated area with a high percentage of the city's pre-schoolaged children, whose dental enamel and bones are most susceptible to fluoride toxicity [19].
The present study investigates conditions involved in acute and chronic fluoride toxicity and environmental effects of industrial fluorides added into public water.
This permanent mottling of teeth is not a mere cosmetic issue but the first outward manifestation of chronic fluoride toxicity.
Organisms from at least two branches of the tree of life are using fluoride riboswitches, and the proteins used to combat fluoride toxicity are present in many species from all three branches.
Fluoride toxicity, Retrieved September 1, 2008, from http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/ accidents/acute.html