Although SCAD is idiopathic in the majority of patients, an association has been described with fibromuscular dysplasia
(FMD);  there are also case reports of SCAD in patients with HIV.
Anderson, "Angiographic spectrum of cervical and intracranial fibromuscular dysplasia
," Stroke, vol.
The United States Registry for Fibromuscular Dysplasia
: results in the first 447 patients.
Surgical excision of the abnormal right brachial artery with reconstruction and angioplasty has had success in patients with brachial artery disease related to fibromuscular dysplasia
Cross-sectional imaging also plays a major role in diagnosing other vascular conditions manifesting with unilateral neck pain and mimicking IC, such as arterial dissection, large vessel arteritis, arteriosclerosis, fibromuscular dysplasia
, or aneurysms.
Included in the differential diagnosis are inflammatory arteritis, collagen vascular disease, mycotic aneurysms, cystic medial necrosis seen in type IV Ehlers Danlos and Marfan's syndrome, and fibromuscular dysplasia
(FMD) which are also important to consider [6, 7].
Renovascular hypertension is most commonly caused by artherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia
. However, it may also be caused by extrinsic compression of the renal vessels.
Inheritance of arterial lesions in renal fibromuscular dysplasia
. J Hum Hypertens 2007;21:393-400.
In our patient there was circumferential narrowing involving post ductal part of descending aorta and similar changes were seen in subclavian and left common carotid artery suggestive of Takayasu Arteritis with fibromuscular dysplasia
. Her ejection fraction was 60%.No other associated anomaly was found.
The most common changes seen in renal arteries are fibromuscular dysplasia
and atherosclerosis (1).
Kim also notes that SCAD is more common in people with fibromuscular dysplasia
(FMD), which causes some arteries to narrow and others to develop an aneurysm--a bulge that can weaken the walls of a blood vessel.
of the internal carotid artery.
In the remaining 10% of cases, the cause is fibromuscular dysplasia
Other etiological factors include arteritis, neurofibromatosis, fibromuscular dysplasia
, radiation, posttraumatic scarring and compression syndromes (2-5).
associated with simultaneous spontaneous dissection of four peripheral arteries in a 30-year-old man.