Abbreviations APC: Antigen-presenting cell CTL: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte CTLA-4: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein-4 DCs: Dendritic cells EVs: Extracellular vesicles Fas-L: Fas Ligand
ICAM-1: Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 MFI: Median fluorescence intensity MHC-II: Major histocompatibility complex class II MIC A/B: Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A/B MVs: Microvesicles NK: Natural killer NKG2D: Natural killer group 2, member D PBMCs: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells PHA: Phytohemagglutinin sEVs: Small EVs TLR: Toll-like receptor TNF RI: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 TSG101: Tumor susceptibility gene 101 VLA-4: Very late antigen-4.
CKD = chronic kidney disease, (Me; 25-75%) = median and interquartile range, IL-1[beta] = interleukin 1[beta], TNF-RI = soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I, TNF-RII = soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II, sFasL = soluble Fas ligand
, sFas = soluble Fas, sICAM-1 = soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, TIMP-1 = tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, sVCAM-1 = soluble human vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, MMP-9 = metalloproteinase-9, and TGF-[beta]1 = transforming growth factor-beta 1.
Neutrophils induce apoptosis of lung epithelial cells via release of soluble Fas ligand
Identification of novel matrix metalloproteinase-7 (matrilysin) cleavage sites in murine and human Fas ligand
and Fas receptor are coexpressed in normal 25.
Interpretation & conclusions: The high levels of sFas antigen and Fas ligand
seen in HIV infected individuals suggest increased activation and apoptosis of T cells, due to constant stimulation of the immune system by inter-current infections of HIV infected individuals in south India.
Therapeutic approaches for prevention of lymphocyte apoptosis in murine models of sepsis Strategy Intervention Reference Prevent triggering of Blockade of Fas ligand
by using (27) extrinsic pathway Fas fusion protein Prevent triggering of Prevent Fas expression by using (28) extrinsic pathway siRNA Prevent initiation Anti-CD40 agonist antibodies (29) Prevent initiation Treatment with Bcl-2 agonist (30) peptides Prevent triggering of Antiretroviral protease (31) intrinsic pathway inhibitors Prevent execution phase Anticaspase-8 siRNA (28) Prevent execution phase Treatment with caspase (32, 33) inhibitors
Binding of Fas ligand
(FasL) to Fas results in caspase 8 activation, which in turn activates and cleaves B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) interacting domain (Bid), a member of the Bcl-2 family.
This pathway is initiated by death-receptor agonists, including the Fas ligand
It inhibits apoptosis and affects Fas ligand
expression, essentially instructing tumor cells to tell natural killer cells, "You're supposed to die.
The interaction between the Fas ligand
and soluble Fas triggers chemical processes in the hepatocyte that lead to apoptosis.
Earlier research suggested that the interaction between proteins called Fas and Fas ligand
(FasL) keeps potentially dangerous maternal immune cells safely away from the embryo (SN: 6/14/97, p.
Topotarget's key cancer drug targets are HDAC, NAD+, mTOR, Fas ligand
and topoisomerase II.
Background: Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) binds to Fas ligand
(FasL) and inhibits FasL-induced apoptosis.
Expression of Fas ligand
in activated T cells is regulated by c-Myc.