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Sometimes the relationship between belonging, community, and identity is easy to see; for example, people who create characters in multiplayer games or who create self-insertion fanworks create alternative versions of themselves as part of community-focused creative endeavors.
(110) Most notably, consumers may develop a sense of belonging by creating: participating in or contributing to another creator's work by commenting or building on it (e.g., creating fanworks or engaging in other commentary) or participating in crowdsourcing or crowd-funding of projects.
For example, makers of fanworks are "playing in someone else's sandbox," a vivid metaphor for including oneself in a category with the original creator.
(206) For example, well-known professional authors who are also media fans tend to publish their fanworks under pseudoynms--even when publishing under their "real-life" names might garner greater readership for their fanworks.
(94.) See Posting of Cupidsbow to Live Journal, Valuing the Work in Fanwork, http://cupidsbow.livejournal.com/266405.html (Dec.
As it turns out, commercially and critically successful creators resemble creators who avoid the general marketplace and create unauthorized derivative works (fanworks).
Fanworks exist because creativity arises out of a sense of play.
fanwork is sufficiently creative will, of course, turn on the standard
fanwork will require less transformation than would otherwise be
three consideration, a fanwork might simply take too much to be a fair
The Tolkien Music List, for example, is an online collection of songs, artists, and album titles of music that are fanworks of Tolkien's legendarium, either in name or by theme.
Whatever Tolkien's attitude toward fanfiction of his own works, under the current circumstances of Internet culture and fandom, derivative fanworks are simply going to exist as long as a text has fans.
While Tolkien may have been squeamish about seeing fanworks produced directly from his fiction, he supported individual reader interpretation as well as the text's ability to support various interpretations.
For an excellent treatment of authorship and bias in The Silmarillion, see Dawn Walls-Thumma's "Attainable Vistas: Historical Bias in Tolkien's Legendarium as a Motive for Transformative Fanworks."
Francesca Coppa is professor of English at Muhlenberg College and a founding member of the Organization for Transformative Works, a nonprofit established by fans to provide access to and preserve the history of fanworks and culture.
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