Up to now, it had not been clear what coordinated this transition, but SISSA researchers have shown that the Foxg1
gene, already known for its involvement in other development processes and in some rare diseases, regulates stem cell differentiation behavior like a true "conductor."
More specifically, miR-9, miR-200 family, and miR-30 family collectively targeted the down-regulated FOXG1
Importantly, NeuroD6, by forming a coexpression network module with TBR1, FEZF2, FOXG1
, SATB2, and EMX1, plays a key role in development of the human neocortex and hippocampus projection neurons that are severely degenerated in AD brains .
Rondinella et al., "FOXG1
is responsible for the congenital variant of rett syndrome," American Journal of Human Genetics, vol.
Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopment disorder affecting almost exclusively females, is associated with a single monogenic mutation (methyl-CpG binding protein 2, MeCP2) in up to 95% of cases , more rarely by mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) , and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1
) gene .
These TFs include (but are not limited to) the following: SOX2, PAX6, BRN2 or BRN4, NG, ASCL1 and MYT1l, Nr2e1 (TLX), BMI1, FOXG1
, and E47/TCF3 .
Preserved speech, early seizure, and congenital are well-known atypical variants often linked to mutations in genes other than MECP2, that is, the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) in the early seizure variant and the forkhead boxG1 (FOXG1
) in the congenital variant 6, 7].
The 1,802 transcripts up-regulated in NC cells compared to hESC (1,332 transcripts up-regulated in NC cells only in addition to 470 transcripts that up-regulated in both NC cells and NEP cells) included classical NC markers such as snail homolog 2 (Drosophila) (SNAI2; 154-fold), SOX9 (10-fold), and AP2 (TFAP2A; 8-fold], whereas the transcripts up-regulated in NEP cells comprised expected genes such as PAX6 (117-fold) and forkhead box G1 (FOXG1
Teruko 2011 Foxg1
: [venus.sup.+] Danjo cells were sorted to stepwise, induce to ventral telencephalic tissues.
Additionally, all AFSC lines presented low expression of mesoendodermal genes MIXL1, GATA6, SOX17, and FOXA1 and negative expression of mesoendodermal and ectodermal genes, including BRACH, PDGFRa, ACAN, OCN, MYOD, MYH3, RELN, POU4F2, and FOXG1
(Supporting information Figure 1(c)).