New experimental evidence indicates that small changes in the structure of astrocytic processes at excitatory synapses
can change profoundly the strength of synaptic transmission in the brain.
The excitatory synapses
are strongly modulated when GABAergic receptors become active.
SYNCAMs are IgSF/SYNCAM proteins that span the synaptic cleft and induce the formation of excitatory synapses
in vitro , a process seen previously only with neuroligin .
Modification of synaptic proteins mediates the protein-protein interactions which are required for structural plasticity of excitatory synapses
. The loss of Pin1 activity may be one of the earliest events leading to the pathological modification of synaptic proteins in preclinical AD (Figure 4) [42, 43].
Choi et al., "SALM4 suppresses excitatory synapse
development by cis-inhibiting trans-synaptic SALM3-LAR adhesion," Nature Communications, vol.
The single predominant CF forms hundreds of excitatory synapses
, whose activation evokes, in PC dendrites, a strong depolarization and a pronounced increase in intradendritic calcium concentration, mediated by voltage-dependent [Ca.sup.2+] channels (VDCCs) of the P/Q type [12-16].
Schmidt et al., "Bassoon speeds vesicle reloading at a central excitatory synapse
," Neuron, vol.
This work provided the direct evidence that ATP released from the individual excitatory synapses
and/or glial cells can activate P2X receptors in the neocortical neurons.
In the CNS, excitatory synapses
exhibit multiple forms of plasticity that play a central role in information processing by neural networks.
Taken together, these studies suggest that SPARC may play an important role in excitatory synapse
development by preventing premature maturation of synapses to facilitate proper formation of neural circuitry.
(2007) The postsynaptic architecture of excitatory synapses
: A more quantitative view.
Membrane trafficking from intracellular compartments is shown to be essential for maintenance of dendritic spines, sites for more than ninety percent of excitatory synapses
in mammalian brain.
Busciglio, "A role for synaptic zinc in activity-dependent Abeta oligomer formation and accumulation at excitatory synapses
," The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
Specifically, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the brain, endocannibinoids play a significant role in weakening the excitatory synapses
onto dopamine neurons.
Researchers from John Hopkins University in Baltimore published (http://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6324/511) a summary of their findings in the journal under the title "Homer1a drives homeostatic scaling-down of excitatory synapses
during sleep." In it, they said the synapses in the brain (they are the structures that connect neurons, allowing them to transmit information between themselves) recalibrate themselves during sleep so that the mice could retain information they learnt during their waking hours for later use.