is a highly contagious disease of horses, mules, and donkeys worldwide except in Australia, New Zealand, and Iceland.
Notables among these include Chancellor's Medal (1966), Lance Award (1996), ICAR Special Award for developing Equine influenza
vaccine (1998), OIE International Meritorious Award (2000), Major (Mrs.
All blood samples were negative for equid herpesviruses 1 and 4 and equine arteritis virus, and all nasal swab samples were negative for equine influenza
Needham said: "This all started when Australia had equine influenza
and Hong Kong couldn't import from there.
Feline respiratory tract epithelial cells contain sialic acid [alpha]-2,3-galactose [beta]-1,3-N-acetyl galactosamine (SA [alpha]2,3 gal) receptors for avian and equine influenza
viruses and SA [alpha]2,6 gal receptors for mammalian influenza virus (13).
Since January 2011, surveillance of equine influenza
viruses has been enhanced in 3 Mongolian aimags (provinces).
Binding of the hemagglutinin from human or equine influenza
H3 viruses to the receptor is altered by substitutions at residue 193.
Dubawi left 80 foals from his first season at stud in Australia in 2006, missed the 2007 season due to the equine influenza
outbreak, covered 95 mares in Australia in 2008, and returned last year.
Crow, 55, who trains in Jedburgh, was found guilty of not vaccinating horses against equine influenza
and of forging horse passports.
Makybe Diva, a daughter of Desert King, was bred to Kentucky Derby winner Fusaichi Pegasus in 2007 after her planned mate, Encosta De Lago, was stranded in quarantine due to Australia's equine influenza
In the United Kingdom, pneumonia in dogs and influenza (H3N8) virus have been retrospectively linked, and subtype H3N8 infections have been identified serologically in dogs likely to have been in close contact with horses during the 2003 outbreak of equine influenza
The recent infection of dogs with equine influenza
virus (H3N8) (2) and of swine with human influenza virus (H1N2) (4) are particularly intriguing because the former resulted in influenza becoming endemic in dogs and the latter resulted in a documented reassortment event between human and swine influenza viruses.
In its findings, the BHA disciplinary panel said: "Burke's conduct damaged the reputation and conduct of racing here and abroad because it shows a serious breach of the defences against equine influenza
which the system of vaccination and certification by veterinary surgeons is meant to provide.
Two recent notable incidences of this are the transmission of equine influenza
virus (H3N8) to dogs (9) and the transmission of avian influenza virus (H5N1) to humans as well as to various carnivore species (10-13).
The 13-year-old son of Nureyev, who stood at Ashford Stud in Kentucky until 2005, has completed all of his southern hemisphere breeding seasons at Cambridge Stud but has been prevented from making the trip from Japan to New Zealand in the last two years due to the Australian equine influenza
outbreak in 2007 and quarantine issues last year.