the Equal Rights Amendment
sought a more secure foundation.
Prior to 1976, the Massachusetts Constitution simply required gender-based distinctions to bear a "fair and substantial relation to the object of the legislation." (29) In 1976, however, when it was clear that efforts to adopt a federal equal rights amendment
would be unsuccessful, Massachusetts amended article one of its constitution to state that "[e]quality under the law shall not be denied or abridged because of sex, race, color, creed or national origin." (30) Recognizing that the amendment--commonly referred to as the ERA--groups gender-based discrimination with other prohibited bases for discrimination that are subject to strict judicial scrutiny under the U.S.
Tammy Baldwin (D-Wis) introduced HJ Resolution 47, which would remove the deadline for ratification of the ERA and also clarifies that upon ratification by three more states, the Equal Rights Amendment
would be added to the U.S.
* to guarantee that no law can discriminate on the basis of a person's sex (the Equal Rights Amendment
For example, when Alice Paul of the newly formed National Women's Rights Party proposed the Equal Rights Amendment
(ERA) in 1920, prohibiting discrimination in the workplace, she elicited strong opposition from many groups including the League of Women Voters.
Chief among the bills was the Equal Rights Amendment
. Our opponents insisted that equal rights would prohibit gender-separate toilets.
There are also many assertions; for example, that the failure of the Equal Rights Amendment
represented a backlash against affirmative action.
Lest we forget, the Equal Rights Amendment
has never been ratified in this, our "Christian" nation, and it took decades of attempts before the 19th Amendment was ratified to affirm women's right to vote.
THE ARKANSAS GENERAL ASSEMBLY has once again failed to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment
It is very rare that the church institutionally puts the weight of its formidable organization behind an issue; same-sex marriage and the equal rights amendment
are the only issues of recent memory where this has happened.
Far from a dead letter, the Equal Rights Amendment
(ERA) is currently pending in both houses of Congress.
She supported the Equal Rights Amendment
and women's ordination yet upheld Victorian ideals of women's behavior.
Macune's agitation for the subtreasury plan or Alice Paul's campaign for woman suffrage and the Equal Rights Amendment
, all of these reformers defined government as part of the solution.
She wrote on the political and legal roots of the feminist movement and did extensive research on suffragist Alice Paul, founder of the National Women's Party in 1916 and original author of the Equal Rights Amendment
The Mormons' protection of their view of family life also became political thanks to the controversial Equal Rights Amendment
. Some say it was threatening to the Church since the role of women would be transformed from that of a nurturing housewife staying at home and taking care of the children to someone who now could make decisions for herself.