They may have thought that such communities did not offer them anything that did not possess already either individually or as members of the Jewish people," Groups of such Jews may have joined together, developed their own interpretations of Jesus' life and death, and created communities such as the Ebionites
and Elkesites that would be deemed heretical by Christians in later centuries.
Sumney on Paul's opponents, and Petri Luomanen on the Ebionites
7] Some at least of the Ebionites
, a group of Jewish Christians influential in the early Palestinian church in the first and second centuries, thought that Matthew had misread Isaiah 7:14 (see below), and that Jesus was conceived naturally.
Indeed, one early sect of Jewish followers of Jesus, the Ebionites
who flourished around 100 AD, held that Jesus was conceived through normal sexual union between Joseph and Mary.
Matthew 19:24) Eusebius, a fourth century Christian historian, refers to an early Jewish-Christian sect known as the Ebionites
(literally, the poor ones in Hebrew), so-named because of their state of voluntary poverty.
In the definitive version of the Temptation, Flaubert has the Aged Ebionites
say that they have known "the Carpenter's Son
1] Due to pressure from both the early church and the Jewish community, the Jewish Christians were squeezed out, with various remnants such as the Ebionites
Jerome: `John, the apostle whom Jesus most loved, the son of Zebedee and brother of James the apostle, whom Herod, after the Lord's passion, beheaded, was the last one to write a Gospel, at the request (rogatus) of the bishops of Asia, against Cerinthus and other heretics and especially against the then growing doctrine of the Ebionites
, who asserted that Christ did not exist before Mary.
The evidence he adduces in support of these claims carries implications for vast historical themes, such as the Enlightenment, as well as particular instances of intellectual history, such as Edward Gibbon's treatment of the Ebionites
in the Decline and Fall.
24) The Ebionites
, according to Irenaeus, read only the Gospel of Matthew.
and Nazoraeans receive critical treatment (Skarsaune, Wolfram Kinzig), and Skarsaune closes the book with a masterful summary history.
They include Basilides the Gnostic, the school of Valentinus, Tatian the Assyrian, the egalitarian and ecstatic new prophecy of Montanism, Ebionites
, Nazarenes, and the Jewish Christianity of the Pseudo-Clementines.
66) According to Epiphanius' source, the Ascents of Jacob, the Ebionites
believed that Paul had been a Gentile who converted to Judaism and later apostatized.
Essays by other scholars deal with groups (the Jerusalem Church, Paul's Christ-believing Jewish opponents, And the Ebionites
and Nazarenes) and with texts (Q, Matthew, the Johannine writings, James, Revelation, the Didache, and the Pseudo-Clementines).
On "Jewish Christianity," we are treated to solid and thoughtful proposals that go far beyond conventional considerations of Ebionites
, Nazoreans, and the like.