Arnold kindly provided the computer program for calculations of expected decay in cytonuclear disequilibria
. We thank G.
However, the minimum sample size required (n.sub.min]) to detect those observed disequilibria
with 90% power is generally much larger than is currently available.
Hardy-Weinberg and linkage disequilibria
can also be tested by a method that treats the data as a two-allele system (most frequent allele plus "other") (Smouse and Neel, 1977; Smouse et al., 1983; Yang and Yeh, 1993).
This literature made a permanent contribution to the general econometric literature because the study of disequilibria
in CPEs fostered the development of disequilibrium econometric techniques.
The dynamic disequilibria
is, in other words, the expected impact on financial institutions and markets in the 12 EEC countries as players and regulators hustle to define, redefine, and secure their positions in an integrated Europe.
It seems to me that many questions concerning medium-run disequilibria
are properly discussed in a model that assumes exogeneity of the real wage rate and does not distinguish between traded and non-traded goods, but introduces a feedback from the foreign trade balance to the real interest rate [E.
In contrast to the Polish transects, we found significant heterozygote deficit and stronger linkage disequilibria
within the hybrid zone.
Since the error correction terms capture each variable's response to disequilibria
, the latter source of causal linkages becomes the central focus in investigations involving cointegrated series.
The barriers are typically not absolute because these disequilibria
decay with recombination, and alleles escape into favorable genetic backgrounds on the other side of the zone.
were estimated using the LINKDIS program (Black and Krafsur 1985).
It will be shown by this technique that the polymorphic population is not in linkage or Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and the more the genetic variance maintained by selection, the larger is the relative importance of genetic variance components due to these disequilibria
Testing for homogeneity of gametic disequilibria
among populations can be informative in discriminating among the evolutionary agents generating them in natural populations.
After confirming that the RAPD markers analyzed are simple Mendelian traits, Cruzan and Arnold (1993, 1994) found significant cytonuclear disequilibria
in a hybrid zone of irises.
The apparent contradiction is resolved by the linkage disequilibria
, which are generated by the influx of pure genomes into the hybrid zone.
In the following, population R is supposed to be at a steady state under selection with gene frequencies [Mathematical Expression Omitted], linkage disequilibria
[Mathematical Expression Omitted] and mean fitness [Mathematical Expression Omitted].