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The bottom line here is that dharma is the best; next comes artha; and kama is the lowest--the same thesis that we find in the Dharmas'astras.
The first refers to a "triple set," a group of three concepts: dharma, artha, and kama, whose precise meanings are ambiguous and, as we will see, are defined differently by different authors.
The cosmology, ontology and epistemology of both these philosophies is rigorously developed in the form of multiple debates throughout the book, but I bracket all these discussions and concentrate mainly on the notions of dharma (duties) and liberation, which according to Bartley are the central core of Indian philosophies.
This is centered around the notion of dharma in the performance of rituals or meditation or yoga or some other more sophisticated practices.
Again Sakyamuni establishes methods to be used in the process--one should make one's determination based on what one "know[s] for [one]sel[f]" of dharmas' qualities and of what "dharmas ...
The Satthusasana Sutta (To Upali), AN 7.80, (53) Gotami Sutta, AN 8.53, (54) and the Ambalatthika Rahulovada Sutta, MN 61 (discussed below) each depict Sakyamuni repeating this same broad assertion: one should base one's decision as to whether or not a dharma is the True Dharma or should be followed, on what one knows of what "dharmas lead to." If the teaching or practice leads to any of the spiritually counterproductive or otherwise harmful states enumerated in the passage (or fails to lead to any of the beneficial, positive states or outcomes outlined), one can "definitely hold, 'This is not the Dhamma, this is not the Vinaya, this is not the Teacher's instruction.'"
No one is better qualified to write a summa on Dharmasastra than Patrick Olivelle, whose many works include a critical edition and translation of Manu, translations of the Dharma sutras of Apastamba, Gautama, Baudhayana, and Vasistha, the smrti of Visnu, and the Arthasastra of Kautilya, and the editing of a volume of papers by many scholars on the range and semantic history of the concept of dharma, among other things.
To begin with it is situated in the overlap between dharma and law, understood as indigenous and modern quasi-counterparts of one another, giving the book a dual focus.
dharmas ca vyavaharas ca caritram rajasasanam I vivadarthas catuspadah pascimah purvabadhakah II
(6.) It is worth noting that in the case of vikalpa the option is not between dharma and adharma, but rather between two equally "legal" dharmas.
Shiva Bajpai, founding president of the Dharma Civilization Foundation, said his organization's agreement with the Graduate Theological Union "ensures that Hinduism and other Indic religious and philosophical traditions are taught in the United States at a major theological center by scholars who are also dedicated to their faith."
Over the last several years, Hiltebeitel has published several preparatory articles that paved the way for this monumental survey of the early history of the central theological and philosophical category of dharma. While scholars have long recognized that dharma is a concept used in many different contexts by many distinct authors and traditions, understanding its semantic diversity, its conceptual evolution, and its cultural significance has been something perpetually to place in the desiderata box.
Dharmaparyiiya is translated by Burnouf (1852: 714) as "discours religieux," by Hurvitz (1976: 119, 372-73) as "Dharma-circuit," by Zimmermann (2002: 144) as "Dharma discourse," by Nattier (2003: 260, 319-30) as "Dharma-text," by Skilling (2009: 63) as "turn of the teaching," and by von Hinither (2012: 60) as "exposition of the Dharma." The term can refer, according to Schopen " (1989: 135 n.
In chapters two and three of his book, Bowles provides the best state-of-the-field synthesis of dharma in Brahminical traditions that I have read.
This extremely useful work lays out, in synoptic fashion, the parallel passages found in the early dharmasutras--the legal treatises, mostly in prose, associated with particular Vedic schools, that precede the major dharmasastras, especially the Manava Dharma Sastra, the law code of Manu.
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