Queen's College, earlier prevented from operating in Massachusetts, managed to gain entry into the previously monopolized New Jersey market and to initiate a trend of "demonopolization
" as all of the colonies except Delaware began efforts to expand higher education following America's independence (Thwing 1906).
(22) Macroeconomic institutions able to ensure a stable economic environment; liberalization of prizes, trade and payments; transparent and stable legal and regulatory framework; demonopolization
and privatization of Public-owned enterprises; competitive and prudently managed banking sector.
The government also works to carry out demonopolization
of the advertising market, ensure rapid and painless transference of
Because the demonopolization
led to a huge increase in premiums, the Baden-Wurttemberg example fits well into the lessons learned from the Swiss case.
In this Policy Brief, I lay out a plan for the development of a truly de-politicized Postal Service through demonopolization
, corporatization, and eventual privatization.
Changes should include: a public finance reform, labor market deregulation, privatization of the state enterprise sector, market demonopolization
, and undertakings that enhance international competitiveness of economies.
to be effective, however, entities determining patentability must have high-powered incentives to make accurate judgments.
Russian energy policy, with the recent Duma rubberstamp, continues to support the exclusive fight of Gazprom as Russia's exclusive exporter of gas and will continue to reject the demonopolization
of Gazexport and Transneft in the transport sector.
Mok and Cheng (2001) identified paradigmatic changes in education in the new century, including the "demonopolization
" of teaching; the change from teacher-centered teaching to student-centered learning; the development of self learning; the emphasis of lifelong learning; the redefinition of knowledge and methods of knowledge acquisition brought about by developments in information and communication technology.
 On the other hand, market forces may result in less gender discrimination if discrimination becomes too costly for enterprise managers facing hard budget con straints and increasing competition from internal and external sources, due to demonopolization
and trade liberalization.
What is more, Karimov argued, privatization prior to establishing competition through demonopolization
would have adverse consequences.
"With deregulation and demonopolization
of the area, I see my products and services working with small guys that want to start phone companies.
Indeed, in some countries competition authorities were given the mandate to impose demonopolization
prior to privatization (e.g., Poland).