Instead, Israel contends that "the French populist authoritarianism generated by Marat and Robespierre was not in any way an offshoot of the democratic republican Revolution of 1789-93 but an entirely separate and fiercely antagonistic social, cultural, and political trend" (p.281).
In the North, the collective known as the Universal Democratic Republicans (UDR) remained devoted to "socialism, free thought, and physical culture," the pursuit of which included land reform and the elevation of all labor including enslaved Southern blacks (37).
Jefferson headed a political party known variously as Republicans or Democratic Republicans. They thought of themselves as small government men, little knowing that their first man in the White House would engineer the largest real estate deal in world history - the purchase of the Louisiana territory.
By contrast, 'Democratic Republicans' (the exemplar of which David Marquand takes to be Tawney), have had relatively little formal influence on government but have inspired extra-parliamentary pressure groups, lobbies and activists to act as 'free citizens governing themselves through dialogue and debate and empowering themselves in doing so'.