The Unity Congress (Dai hoi Doan ket) of 5-6 September 1953, conceived by Ngo Dinh Diem's brother Ngo Dinh Nhu and Nguyen Ton Hoan of the Dai Viet
Party to denounce the policies of Bao Dai, saw the religious forces of the South--the Caodaists and the Hoa Hao--affirm their loyalty to the ex-emperor.
The strong Ming empire seemingly had the resources to force its political will on Vietnam, but the materially weaker Dai Viet
kingdom was not willing to accept this change in the relationship for long.
Moreover, in the wake of the Ming invasion in 1407, Nguyen Trai, in Binh Ngo Dai Cao, proclaimed, "Our land, Dai Viet
, for times immemorial, has been of ancient culture/ Our Southern land with its mountains and rivers/Its customs and traditions distinct from those of the North.
While the consensus is that there existed a pre-tenth century region that included modern northern Vietnam and southern China that the Chinese called Jiaozhi, after the tenth century the newly independent Dai Viet
realm is shown to have had inconsistent boundaries and in various ways separated from the history and culture of the Chinese administered regions to its north.
John Whitmore has drawn our attention to the multiethnic coastal area of the early Dai Viet
and its significance for Vietnamese history.
21) Viet historiographies such as the 1377 Dai Viet
Su Luoc (Great Vie Historical Annals; anonymous), often referred to as Viet Su Luoc, and the TT mention it briefly.
As for Dai Viet
, Whitmore has done more than any scholar to explore growing cultural and commercial ties to the coast and to South China during the Ly (1009-1225) and more especially the Tran (1225-1400) Dynasties.
10) See Francois Guillemot, 'Vietnamese nationalist revolutionaries and the Japanese Occupation: The case of the Dai Viet
parties (1936-1946)', in Imperial Japan and national identities in Asia, 1895-1945, ed.
56) Later Vietnamese texts claim that Ly was from Jiao-zhou (modern Vietnam), but regardless of where he was from, it appears that there were intimate links between the Ly court and the Hokkiens, both merchants and literati, (57) presumably bolstering commercial links between southern China and the maritime trade routes passing through Dai Viet
In Chapter 3, which is devoted to peasant life under the Tay So'n leaders, Dutton explains the effort to control the rural population of Dai Viet
through the use of identity cards and new classification schemes that would allow the Tay So'n regimes to more efficiently recruit peasants into their armies or fulfil their labour or tax demands.
This trading zone included the Guangxi coast facing the Tonkin Gulf, coastal Dai Viet
, northern Champa and Hainan Island.
What, then, was the role of Dai Viet
in this trade, and how did it affect the Vietnamese?
I further suggest that its importance only increased over the course of the twentieth century, with the HLNTC emerging as an Ur-text for histories of this period, providing what has become the standard historical narrative of events in late eighteenth-century Dai Viet
and particularly its northern regions.
Hoan's Dai Viet
connections and Diem's network of Catholic supporters made a formidable combination, and for a brief moment it seemed as if the Alliance might succeed where the National Union Front had failed.
Though sources in this regard are still very imperfect, they do suggest that Southeast Asian rulers in Dai Viet
, Lan Na and Luchuan (the land of the Maw Shan in present-day southwestern Yunnan) lost no time in acquiring and employing this new Chinese technology for their benefit, while those who adopted it on a smaller scale or not at all (such as Champa and Ayutthaya) suffered the consequences.