The use of multiple drugs further increases the risk of developing DILI.
13) The presence of chronic liver diseases, alcoholism, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increase the risk of developing DILI.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes encode the components of the major histocompatibility complexes, which are involved in antigen recognition and immune function and are thought to play a role in idiosyncratic DILI.
Genes involved in drug metabolism have also been studied in an attempt to understand the pathogenesis of idiosyncratic DILI.
There is an important need for future studies to further investigate the underlying mechanism of TB DILI.
These patients are likely to be males aged >50 years who are on ART and present with symptomatic DILI.
Unpredictable or idiosyncratic reactions account for most types of DILI.
Unfortunately, there are no features absolutely predictive of either IRIS or DILI.
The presence of a TB immune reconstitution syndrome involving the liver in patients with HIV/AIDS after initiating ART should not be confused with a DILI.
Given their widespread and voluminous (ab)use, NSAIDs are a significant cause of DILI.
Patients with any two of the above-mentioned seven conditions were considered to have DILI.
27%) drugs also ranked among the major causes of DILI.
Medication of both first- and second-line ART regimens may cause DILI.