Thus, M1 microglia and other monocyte-like cells consistently express multiple cytokine receptors
and TLRs that, when activated, induce innate immune genes, such as proinflammatory cytokines, proteases, and oxidases, which help to break down, process, and remove damaged cells and tissue.
In contrast to many cytokine receptors
that lack intrinsic kinase activity and interact with JAKs to initiate phosphorylation cascades, the IGF-I receptor is a member of the tyrosine kinase receptor family and autophosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor stimulates tyrosine kinase activity and is required for SOCS2 binding.
TABLE 1: The cytokine receptors
analyzed in this study.
Not only are a variety of sex hormone receptors found on immune cells, but cytokine receptors
(e.g., IL-1R, IL-18R) have likewise been discovered on hormone-producing tissues, which suggests bidirectional regulation of the immune response.
have been identified in the limbic structures of the brain, peripherally in the paraganglia of the spinal cord, and on lymphocytes.
Hirokawa, "Differential expression of various cytokine receptors
in the brain after stimulation with LPS in young and old mice," Experimental Gerontology, vol.
In order to dissect the pathways in vivo, utilizing animal models with a cell type specific deletion of cytokine receptors
will be an ideal approach.
Cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors
, and receptor antagonists are useful in treating many diseases.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin- (IL-) 1, IL-6, and IL-23/IL-17 are major inflammatory cytokine pathways of great interest from serial studies of single nucleotide polymorphisms, cytokine receptors
, and associated intracellular signaling molecules.
Fenzel et al., "Plasma levels of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors
in psychiatric patients upon hospital admission: effects of confounding factors and diagnosis," Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol.
TLR and IL-1R are two cytokine receptors
, respectively, which are implicated in inflammatory and immune signalling.
Each member is composed of a helical [alpha] subunit (p35, p19, and p28) and a [beta]-subunit (p40 and EBI3) structurally similar to the extracellular domain of type 1 cytokine receptors
From a broader therapeutic point of view, for patients presenting with endocrine dysfunction associated with plasma cell disorder or chronic proinflammatory state, targeting cytokine signaling may represent an additional therapeutic tool to prevent or reduce further aggravating consequences of the endocrine dysfunction, as not only the productions of proinflammatory cytokines are frequently deregulated in these patients but also the widely distributed cytokine receptors
are present in endocrine tissues encompassing the brain, adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary, and placenta as well as islet [beta]-cells.