were readily identifiable in the stomachs of spiny dogfish, at sea upon macroscopic inspection, by their obvious firm-gelatin constitution, small and clear ball-like shape, uniquely (relative to any other spiny dogfish prey) colored pinkish-gray masses, and particularly the ctene rows.
The Copepoda (Eurytemora grimmi, Limnocalanus grimaldii grimaldii, Acartia tonsa, Ectinosoma concinnum, and Halicyclops sarsi), Cladocera (Podonevaden trigona, Pleopis polyphemoides, Polyphemos exiguus), Cirripedia (Balanus sp.), Polychaeta (Hediste diversicolor), Bivalvia larvae, and Ctenophora
(Mnemiopsis leidyi) dominated the zooplankton taxa in all seasons in the southwestern Caspian Sea (Table 4).
Of the four phyla, HcAs in Ctenophora
, Porifera, and Hemichordata were reported previously (Aguilera et al., 2013; Martin-Duran et al., 2013).
In addition, several taxonomic groups that were common in salmon gut contents were rarely or never observed in the zooplankton samples (e.g., Insecta and Araneae, Cephalopoda, Teleostei, and Ctenophora
) and were therefore placed into the "other" category for characterizing zooplankton community composition.
The most ancient animal groups (phyla) include the Porifera (sponges), Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Ctenophora
We studied the swimming behavior of two species of gelatinous zooplankton, a comb jelly Mnemiopsis mccradyi (Phylum Ctenophora
) and a hydrozoan jellyfish medusa Nemopsis bachei (Phylum Cnidaria), under the altered gravity conditions generated aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft.
However, phyla such as Cnidaria and Ctenophora
, which are typically classified as diploblasts, possess striated musculature.
Radiolaria, Heliozoa, Foraminifera, Ciliophora, Cnidaria, Ctenophora
, Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, Rotifera and Mollusca.
Whitish mucus-like digested material was often encountered in the stomachs and was believed to be the digested remains of either Siphonophora or Ctenophora
. This unidentified gelatinous zooplankton prey group constituted the number one prey item both by weight (71.1%) and by occurrence (46.2%) in the diets of S.
The new species also belongs to Ctenophora
, a "strange and poorly known" group of animals, said Gershwin, curator of natural science at the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery in Tasmania.
In Reef and shore fauna from Hawaii, Section 1: Protozoa through Ctenophora
The ability to regenerate neural tissue is widespread among numerous animal phyla, such as Ctenophora
, Cnidaria, Playhelminthes, Annelida, and Nemertea, to name a few (Alvarado, 2000; Brown et al., 2009; Bely and Nyberg, 2010; Somorjai et al., 2012; Giangrande and Licciano, 2014).
In addition, future studies should include a comparison between the inshore and offshore waters of the north-Patagonian area with respect to the abundance of jellyfish (i.e., Medusae and Ctenophora
), which are known to be major predators of fish eggs and larvae (Bailey, 1984; Fancett, 1988).
Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii, Section 1 : Protozoa through Ctenophora
. Bishop Museumaspe.