In the first part, the critical damping
in fractional order system is studied.
But from the analysis runs with the "lumpy' tire on the inside rear location, a "maximum steering delta metric" was derived and was plotted versus a calculated percent critical damping
which was the subject of another EI Paper  (It is important to note the this paper was reviewed in a separate SAE paper  and was found to have many theoretical as well as simple mathematical errors).
The structural responses are estimated considering 0%, 2%, 5%, and 10% of critical damping
([zeta] = 0, 2, 5 and 10%); then the damping effect is estimated as
2001) [v.sub.s] = [square root of [G.sub.max]/[rho]] [greater than or equal to] 75 ft/sec [G.sub.max]/Pa = 75.7 [[[sigma]'.sub.lc]/Pa].sup.0.87] [OCR.sup.0.65] Where Pa and [[sigma]'.sup.lc] are the atm ospheric and effective vertical pressures, respectively (5.) For liquefied sand, no reduction in G is allowed and the damping is fix ed t 8%-10% of critical damping
Concrete core walls, columns and ring beams provide strength, stiffness and an inherent critical damping
ratio of 2%.
Considering the damping effect in the sensor, which is mainly influenced by air damping in the gap of glass/silicon, we can design a system in the state of critical damping
or over-damping for wideband performance.
If you decide to use the SRS for its primary strength to determine if the shock pulse is correct, then solve the half-power bandwidth problems by using a normal log frequency plot at or 1/12th octave SDOF filter progression and 5% of critical damping
In Equations  to , D is the damping ratio defined as the ratio of damping in the system to that critical damping
where no vibratory motion occurs.
However, since the mechanical system components such as valves and pumps cannot respond that quickly, critical damping
is normally employed to delay the valve movement or regulate control activities.
The other values of resistance of the shunt coil were provided to take care of possible deviation of the galvanometer from this intended value of external resistance for critical damping
. One of the purposes of the shunt coil is to prevent oscillation of the galvanometer coil when the keys [R.sub.1], [R.sub.2], and 0 are not depressed.
As the system transitions to unloading and converges to [u.sub.f], it shows critical damping
. Case 3 (Figure 4(d)) shows a longer [tau] compared with Case 2 because of its quicker arrival at [u.sub.m].
For the convenience of discussion, the critical damping
and damping ratio are defined as
The proposed method tries to solve this defect so that the new algorithm is achieved based on a well-known structural dynamics theory, that is, critical damping
The parameters for the experimental aeroservoelastic model are: wing chord (C=2b=0.182 m), wing span (L=0.4 m), rotation axis--CE (~ 28%C), mass center of the model--CG (~ 42%C), flap hinge line--S (~ 70%C), model mass (M=1.855 kg), model mass static moment about CE ([S.sub.[alpha]]=0.01729 kg x m), model mass moment of inertia about CE ([I.sub.[alpha]]=2.745 x [10.sup.-3] kg x [m.sup.2]), "plunge"-suspension stiffness constant ([K.sub.w] = 321.6 N/m), "pitch"-suspension stiffness constant ([K.sub.[alpha]]=1.25 Nm/rad), damping coefficients as a fraction of critical damping
([[zeta].sub.w]=0.1, [[zeta].sub.a]=0.1), aerodynamic coefficients of the model measured in wind tunnel [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
provides the most rapid response to a step function without overshoot.