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the part of a continent that is stable and forms the central mass of the continent

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Appearing like inverted mountains, cratons are those ancient rocks that are found in the interior of tectonic planets and extend several hundred miles deep into the mantle.
They found that the underground vibrations, produced from natural processes such as earthquakes and tsunamis, tended to speed up when passing through cratonic roots; the speedup was greater than would be expected from the fact that cratons tend to be colder and less dense than surrounding structures (both of which are conditions that would speed up the waves).
Most of the gold deposits in China concentrate in the North China Craton (NCC), and many of them have geological and geochemical signatures which suggest an orogenic gold mineralization style (e.g., [2, 5, 8, 11-14]).
The mountain range, in the middle of an ancient continental craton, has a thick, crustal root and high topography, which has made the Gamburtsevs the least-understood tectonic feature on Earth for the past 50 years.
Ancient, stable cratons play no part in this underwater action.
The extant record of Archean crust is highly fragmented and scattered around the globe in about 35 significant pieces, the "Archean cratons" (Bleeker, 2003).
Thus the diamonds transported from where they had rested in "storage" for perhaps 3 billion years at the bases of continental cratons (see later) reach the surface in an ascent that takes only four to fifteen hours (Kirkley et al., 1991).
The finds are particularly valuable because they come from two far-situated areas--the East European and North American cratons. According to the faunal records (acritarchs, trilobites, trace fossils) of the former area, the older species, O.
The Trans-Hudson orogen is a major Early Proterozoic suture between the Archean Rae-Hearne and Superior cratons of the western Churchill Province.
Cratons are the oldest portions of Earth's continents that have remained stable for over a billion years.
The findings add to our understanding of how cratons and plate tectonics, and thus also Earth's current continents, came into being.
The largest diamonds come from cratons, the most ancient formations within continental interiors that have deep mantle roots or keels around which younger continental material gathered.