In particular, if the Coulomb repulsion between two electrons is smaller than the width of the Hubbard bands, 2 types of hops, on unoccupied (SO [right arrow] UO, DO [right arrow] UO) and occupied (SO [right arrow] SO, DO [right arrow] SO) sites are relevant.
The contribution of the Coulomb repulsion is larger than that of the dipole repulsion when the radial distance is smaller than 20d; the potential energy is dominated by the screened Coulomb repulsion at the interparticle distance of 6d for the liquid-like interfacial colloid structure observed by Pieranski for the area fraction of A = 0.02 (Figure 1c).
In reality, most doubly charged molecular ions quickly dissociate into two singly charged fragments, making it almost impossible to distinguish processes (3) and (4) from the dissociation of doubly charged ions by Coulomb repulsion, i.e., process (6).
As these droplets evaporate, analyte ions whose polarity is opposite to the applied potential migrate to the surface of the droplets, where Coulomb repulsion causes the droplets to break up into yet smaller droplets, greatly enhancing evaporation.
Some of the hand-waving arguments the author uses are not very convincing, such as the electrostatic Coulomb repulsion with an electron-phonon-electron interaction model, built on Cooper's electron theory.