But it does not explain how such an error made it into a final Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA), or how it made it past the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), which is in charge of scrutinizing cost-benefit analyses
. Another possibility is that the PTO's focus on private costs and benefits is political, rather than economic.
For 20 of those, the agency performed cost-benefit analyses
and nine of these represented an economic impact of $100 million or more.
The study found that 10 states-Florida, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Utah, Virginia, Washington and Wisconsin-were in the vanguard using cost-benefit analyses
to generate answers about programs' return on investment and to drive policy decisions, particularly in their largest budget areas.
(2006) Cost-benefit analyses
of radon mitigation projects, Journal of Environmental Management, 81(1), pp.
and qualitative measures of costs and benefits" and "to select those approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety, and other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity) unless a statute requires another regulatory approach." Thus, decisionmakers are instructed to consider a broad range of equity and other factors when applying the results of cost-benefit analyses
Given the cost-benefit analyses
presented in the paper, the best option for Northwestern Ontario would appear to be a move towards regional government.
What's more, before the agency can issue a rule, it has to conduct time-consuming and expensive consumer surveys and cost-benefit analyses
. And if a final rule is different from a proposed rule, the FDA has to conduct new analyses.
Economic payoffs Cost-benefit analyses
compared measurable benefits--such as reductions in crime costs, public school costs and welfare spending; and participants' increases in earnings and taxes paid on earnings--to total program cost.
In addition to creating the structure, FXFOWLE wrote tenant guidelines for everything from layout and materials for interior construction to energy cost-benefit analyses
and instructions on the building's integrated recycling system.
Generally, federal agencies have fallen in line behind OMB's commands to use discounting in their cost-benefit analyses
. (40) However, the federal government has not spoken with one voice in regards to the most important decision in any discounting analysis--setting the discount rate.
The article's author noted that major projects are often done after cost-benefit analyses
determine the wisdom of the procedure, while other recycling and reuse applications may be performed either for profit or by those who simply hate to see useful objects enter a landfill.
However, from an accountability standpoint, in spite of an enlarging and important research base, researchers and theorists in career counseling typically have not taken the next step of translating the available research findings into cost-benefit analyses
. Even though one could make the oversimplified observation that every positive or negative correlation between a particular career intervention and a desired outcome carries with it economic costs and economic benefits, professionals in career counseling have not systematically focused on these issues.
The guidance notes that appropriate use of primary credit for contingency situations requires institutions to ensure that (1) the necessary documentation and collateral arrangements are in place; (2) primary credit lines are periodically tested; (3) viable take-out or exit strategies exist to replace primary credit borrowings; and (4) appropriate cost-benefit analyses
are conducted in light of the cost of primary credit borrowings relative to other sources of short-term contingency funds.
Two cost-benefit analyses
for the rule, known as the Clear Skies initiative, were presented by the agency.
Microeconomic studies on libraries can be classified into a number of categories: economic theory of libraries, economies of scale using production functions and cost functions, data envelopment analysis, cost-benefit analyses
, cost modeling, and performance measures.