Carroll's first argument for his thesis C, which is presented in his paper "Why (Almost All) Cosmologists
Are Atheists," is as follows:
To try to explain away this and many other astounding cosmic "coincidences" that allow life to exist in our universe, some cosmologists
have tried to find naturalistic alternatives to the beginning of the universe, other than it was designed by an intelligent being--a being that atheist scientists are trying to disavow.
can describe the universe reasonably well with a model based on six quantities, including the universe's expansion rate and the density of ordinary matter.
have sought alternate explanations.
"I see it as a big step forward," Charles Bennett, a cosmologist
at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, who was not involved in the work, said.
Further, by studying the past history of the universe, cosmologists
can make breathtaking predictions about its future prospects.
Such efforts gained little acceptance, striking many cosmologists
as unwieldy or contrived.
In it he and Maggie Keswick, his late wife, worked with leading physicists, cosmologists
and biologists to create landscapes illustrating mysteries of modern science.
have calculated that the odds are slim - one divided by one followed by 100million trillion trillion trillion trillion noughts.
constructed the horn-shaped universe from a complex mathematical model called a Picard topology.
Whereas Stephen Hawking and all the other cosmologists
theorise about parallel universes, his remarks in the Echo on Saturday, January 10 show that he has proved their existence.
Dark energy was proposed as the likely explanation, but at the time many cosmologists
were wary of the idea.
Astronomers and cosmologists
know that dark matter exists but as yet do not know what it is composed of, or how much of it there actually is.
Known as a singularity, this is the moment before creation when space and time did not exist, say cosmologists
From a palace in Ferrara, Italy, cosmologists
have unveiled the most detailed maps yet of the infant universe.