chain gang

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a gang of convicts chained together

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Twice the Work of Free Labor: The Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South.
the Chicago Syndicate, that free men will not submit to the introduction of slavery into our trade under the guise of contract convict labor, and that you will not teach our trade to convicts to enrich these schemers, who care for nothing hut the almighty dollar and now seek to degrade our trade to fill their pockets.
(3) During the past twenty years, more than thirty states have enacted laws permitting the use of convict labor by private enterprises.
1996a Twice the Work of Free Labor: The Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South.
Nevertheless, the Rhode Island General Assembly had passed legislation allowing the use of convict labor. Many convicts employed in road work "were unused to hard manual labor and had never had experience in road work," thus reducing efficiency for the first two or three weeks, after which efficiency increased gradually.
The more conspiratorially minded note the growth of private prisons and convict labor, and suspect the profit motives of the "prison-industrial complex."
Clarke concisely covers nearly four hundred years of racial injustice as evident in slavery, contract labor laws, convict labor, the postemancipation peonage system, and mob violence.
In the early 1890s, Tennessee coal miners took up arms against their employers and the state militia in an effort to end the use of convict labor in the mines.
Rationalists such as Beccaria had provided a clear recipe for reform of the criminal laws, but had offered little insight into what punishments ought to replace the older forms.(43) Pennsylvania relied on its heritage of hard labor stemming from the "Great Law" of 1682.(44) The idea that labor could function as a punishment as well as serving the government had already found expression in workhouses formed throughout the northern colonies in the 1700s.(45) Yet the early experiments with public convict labor were abysmal failures.
Shapiro, The New South Rebellion: The Battle against Convict Labor in the Tennessee Coalfields, 1871-1896 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press 1998)
Articles in the Baton Rouge Advocate and the Boston Globe detail various of Cain's questionable business arrangements, accusing him of receiving kickbacks from prison supply companies, of involvement in companies with whom the prison did business, of attempting to profit from convict labor. Bergner ended up suing Cain for access and, surprisingly, winning the right to continue his reporting in the prison for the yearlong period that Cain had originally promised.
However, it is necessary to note that in this earlier stage of modern Japan, convict labor was used on a large scale, developing metal and coal mines and exploiting the resources in Hokkaido, which the new government had just annexed to its territory.
* Support resolutions that insure that a company does not and will not do business with foreign suppliers who manufacture for sale in the United States using forced labor, convict labor, or child labor, or who fail to comply with all applicable laws and standards protecting their employees' wages, benefits, working conditions, freedom of association, and other rights.
The cost of convict labor had almost equaled that of nominally free labor.
The act included a provision that prohibited the use of convict labor in the performance of government contracts larger than $100,000.