He criticizes Smith for wrongly regarding the Big Bang as a first event, but even if we allow this, then we can resort to some of the subtle devices of philosophical theology such as the doctrine of God's so-called middle knowledge, allowing Him to know at the instant of creation the truth values of all future contingent propositions
, even if they describe states of affairs arising from strictly indeterministic time-evolutions.
In arguing that (1) leads to (2) (and in my defense of the first horn of the dilemma), I have presupposed that future contingent propositions
- propositions like there will be no dinosaur in the hallway - have truth values.
Applied to the consideration of the cognitive states of opinion and knowledge, this means that cognitive states involving contingent propositions
are qualitatively distinct from those involving necessary ones.
Such thinkers then use a `dual-time theory'--the idea that all of time, past, present, and future, is simultaneously present to God in his eternal now--in order to explain how God can know future contingent propositions
Strict coherence (regularity) is an additional constraint of rationality imposed on degrees of belief, according to which contingent propositions
must not be accorded extreme (0 or 1) probabilities.