Meyer said, a number needed to harm analysis suggests that one must treat about 50 women in the first trimester with risperidone doses of 2 mg/ day or greater to find one additional case of major congenital malformation
, compared with no antipsychotic use.
The specific diagnosis of those among the nonexposed group were congenital malformation
of corpus callosum (9%; 81/943), holoprosencephaly (24%; 225/943), and septooptic dysplasia (0.6%; 6/943).
 Despite the complexity in the aetiology of various congenital malformations
consanguinity can act as a risk factor for its occurrence, particularly if the disease has a recessive or multifactorial inheritance pattern.
Increased male proportion in fetal deaths and in fetuses with congenital malformations
Huybrechts and colleagues  reported a nationwide cohort study (n=l,341,715) aiming to explore the overall risk of congenital malformation
due to the exposure to antipsychotics in the early stage of pregnancy (first 3 months), especially the risk for heart defects.
Because Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) is a diagnostic and treatment center for genital tract malformation in China, this study retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of female inpatients with congenital malformation
of the genital tract during a period of 31 years.
Interventions aiming at the control of factors may become critical in the primary prevention of congenital malformations
such as gastroschisis.
Analyses in the prior Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study have shown that valproate is linked to major congenital malformations
and lower IQ in toddlers (N.
prevalent among Egyptian children and associated risk factors.
According to World Health Organisation ( WHO) document of 1972, the term congenital malformation
should be confined to structural defects present at birth.
Despite amazing advances in science and technology, detection of causes of congenital malformation
still remain obscure in most of the cases and only few identifiable factors led the scientist to rethink the situation which is global burden.
The fact that lethal congenital malformation
was the second commonest cause of death could be explained partially by the high degree of consanguineous marriages in Oman.
Table-1: Incidence of Congenital Malformations
in Oligohydramnios and Relationship to Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) AFI Cases Congenital Malformations
Incidence 3-5 58 02 3.4% <3 62 05 8% Total 120 07 5.8% Table-2: Incidence of Neonatal Mortality in Oligohydramnios and Relationship to Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) AFI Cases Neonatal Mortality Incidence 3-5 58 01 1.7% <3 62 03 4.8% Total 120 04 3.3% Table-3: Congenital Malformations
in Oligohydramnios Congenital Malformation
Number Hydronephrosis 03 Hydrocephalus 01 Meningocele 01 Diaphragmatic Hernia 01 Multiple congenital anomalies 01
Furthermore, we compared the results with the number of children diagnosed with a congenital malformation
in women exposed to trimethoprim solely in weeks 13-24 and in weeks 25-36 before conception.
Materials and Methods: Retrospective case record analysis of all children coming to the hospital with congenital malformation
of nasolacrimal duct along with other congenital malformations
of the eyes were included in the study.