In this case, the effect of the confounding variables
C (t) on exposure A (t) differs over time t; in the case of Figure 1e, there is a direct causal effect of C (0) on A (0), but there is no direct causal effect of C (1) on A (1).
The total score of patients' perceptions that the visit was patient centered was associated with positive health outcomes after adjusting for the clustering of patients within practices and after controlling for the 2 confounding variables
have the potential to skew or distort statistical study findings, leading to the report of erroneous results (Norton & Divine, 2015).
In addition, the assessment of confounding variables
did not include psychotropic agents other than SSRIs and benzodiazepines.
After controlling for confounding variables
, the difference in LOS between genders was still not significant (P = 0.
Additional efforts were made to control for some of the possible confounding variables
to identify independent predictors of satisfaction with the programs.
When these three potential confounding variables
are taken into account, they continued, it spotlights so-cioemotional processing deficits such as impaired FAR as "a fruitful area for research aimed at understanding, and hence reducing the risk of violence in psychosis.
Their claim that the difference in anaesthesia times remained significant after adjustment for confounding variables
has to be interpreted in the light of the limited power to accurately adjust for such variables in this type of audit.
The results were adjusted to exclude confounding variables
, including body mass index (BMI).
These differences condition the research methodology chosen, because although the expected outcomes in the critical patient have a short-term horizon and hence the cohort studies may seem very timely, the vast heterogeneity of the population and the interventions represent a real methodological challenge because of confounding variables
and changing factors.
The study, designed to measure major adverse events at 30 days in patients at high risk of narrowed coronary arteries, was stopped due to "unanticipated confounding variables
," the company said.
such as heparin usage, previous history of back pain, catheter size, and the time between the last dose of heparin and sheath removal were controlled as covariates.
There have been very few independent reports on the impact of wind farms on house prices and the findings of these are confusing due to confounding variables
and poor or unrepresentative sample size.
We found strong decreases in abundance of all taxa with increasing radiation, even when controlling statistically for the habitat, weather and other confounding variables
,' said Moller.
Then, data on confounding variables
such as whether they had ever been told by a doctor that they had any of the chronic medical conditions listed (ie, arthritis, asthma, and osteoporosis) or whether they had had a hysterectomy, both ovaries removed, repair of prolapsed vagina, bladder or bowel, or menopause in the previous year, and whether they had a history of smoking were also extracted.