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Synonyms for confounding

that confounds or contradicts or confuses

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Although this working group concluded that several studies in the literature had demonstrated a statistically significant association between BPb levels < 10 [micro]g/dL and some adverse health effects in children, the effects were very small and could conceivably have been influenced by residual confounding factors.
These odds reductions were not adjusted for confounding factors such as age and smoking.
The distinction between the two is a major confounding factor in the diagnosis of infectious diseases said Dr.
Such animals would be useful in drug studies and other research projects because they would enable investigators to dismiss genetic variability as a confounding factor in interpreting their experiments.
To rule out education as a confounding factor, Snowdon's team repeated its analysis with a subgroup of highly educated sisters.
When assessing subpleural fat as a confounding factor, we found former WRG workers to have higher body mass indexes (BMIs) than those who were nor former WRG workers.
However, elevated concentrations of cadmium in urine can also be caused by renal dysfunction, and this potentially confounding factor has left open to question any results that imply a direct causal link between cadmium exposure and adverse kidney and bone effects.
When controlling for confounding factors, such as age, the risk is even higher for men, there's a 74pc and 30pc higher risk for heart disease and stroke, respectively.
In a regression analysis adjusted for possible confounding factors such as lipid levels and hemoglobin A1c, theimprovements in common carotid artery intima-media thickness with cilostazol treatment over aspirin treatment remained significant.
It suggests that sperm counts have fallen by more than half in Western countries and the decline is real and not due to confounding factors such as different methods of measuring sperm numbers or population changes.
These findings remained after accounting for a number of possible confounding factors, such as participants' age, sex, race/ethnicity, the presence of diabetes, and use of aspirin or cholesterol-lowering drugs.
This association persisted even after possible confounding factors
This observational study is limited by the possibility of confounding factors.
The report's author Prof Markku Laakso said: "Statin therapy was associated with a 46% increased risk of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for confounding factors.