For instance, compulsory veiling is not written into law in countries such as the UAE and Egypt, yet Eid (2002) argues "far more generalized than violence and intimidation are the social pressures aimed at convincing Arab [and other Muslim] women to adopt the hijab" (p.
For instance, Iran, the country from whose history and current politics I will take most of my examples, has been through two massive state-enforced campaigns: first, compulsory unveiling in the mid-1930s; and then, compulsory veiling since the 1979 revolution.
Seventy-three years later, when Ayatollah Khomeini decreed compulsory veiling during the 1979 revolution, tens of thousands of women marched on International Women's Day to protest this counter-revolutionary direction and held sitins against the forced expulsion of women, like Ebadi, from the courts.
In this time, the changes that occurred in the status of women-particularly compulsory veiling and stricter marriage and family laws--have become the main line of differentiation between Iran and more "modern" countries.
And for many journalists who travel to Iran, who visit with middle- and upper-class families, the issue of compulsory veiling and other limitations on women's rights are often the first things that are discussed.