The family of Bacteroidiales family_S24-7 abundance has similar correlation with the Bacteroidetes phylum, while the family of Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiales
family_unclassified abundance and genus of Oscillospira and Lachnospiraceae genus_unclassified and Akkermansia g-unclassified abundance followed similar correlation with Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia with metabolic, gut permeability, intestinal structural, and cell homeostasis genetic markers, further suggesting the close link between gut microbiome dysbiosis, and intestinal structural and functional changes are associated with obesity that are independent of dietary differences.
In addition, a number of organisms that seemed associated with BV are uncultivable, for example, species of Eggerthella, Megasphaera, and BVABs members of Clostridiales
. Also, it was demonstrated that, in women of reproductive age group, anaerobic bacteria outnumbered aerobic bacteria; however, the latter appeared to be more abundant with advancing age, onset of sexual activity, and parity of women.
The analysis of microbial community composing human fecal samples of healthy individuals indicated that it is possible to distinguish the human gut microbiota into three main enterotypes based on the abundance of specific bacterial genera (i.e., Bacteroides, Prevotella, or members of the order Clostridiales
Species with Higher Abundance Ratio in the Microbial Consortium Taxonomy Abundance Ratio k_Bacteria;p_Proteobacteria;c_ 17.57% Alphaproteobacteria;o_Caulobacterales; f_Caulobacteraceae;g_Brevundimonas;s_diminuta k_Bacteria;p_Proteobacteria;c_Betaproteobacteria;o 1.35% _Burkholderiales;f_Alcaligenaceae; g_Alcaligenes;s_faecalis k_Bacteria;p_Proteobacteria;c_ 1.09% Gammaproteobacteria;o_Xanthomonadales; f_Xanthomonadaceae;g_Stenotrophomonas;s_ acidaminiphila k_Bacteria;p_Firmicutes;c_Bacilli;o_ 0.26% Bacillales;f_Bacillaceae;g_Bacillus;s_cereus k_Bacteria;p_Firmicutes;c_Clostridia;o_ 0.22% Clostridiales
Recent studies using next-generation sequencing methods have shown that a depletion of commensal anaerobes, particularly Clostridiales
or what has been previously termed as antiinflammatory Clostridia (AIC) (67), and an expansion of Enterococcus spp., occurs in patients who develop GVHD (3, 7, 8, 68).
These microorganisms belonging to the Clostridiales
order are responsible for the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that have anti-inflammatory properties, and, accordingly, biochemical stool analysis revealed lower SCFA levels in the BD patients that positively correlated with the reduced Roseburia (but not Subdoligranulum) colonisation.
Furthermore fit individuals showed a microbiome enriched in butyrate-producing taxa, such as Clostridiales
, Roseburia, Lachnospiraceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae, resulting in increased butyrate production, an indicator of gut health .
The most dominant taxa ([greater than or equal to]1% relative abundance) within the Firmicutes, classified to the most detailed taxonomic level available, were unclassified Lachnospiraceae (43.8%), unclassified Clostridiales
(12.6%), unclassified Ruminococcaceae (9.8%), Lactobacillus (9%), Dorea (3.4%), Oscillibacter (2.6%), Allobaculum (1.4%), and Butyricicoccus (1.2%).
Clostridium lavalense (Phylum Firmicutes, Order Clostridiales
) is a recently described bacterial species .
Recently, some studies reported that subjects with T2DM had a lower proportion of butyrate-producing Clostridiales
(Roseburia and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii) and greater proportions of Clostridiales
that do not produce butyrate .
LGG reversed Aerococcus, [up arrow] the expansion of the Listeria, [up arrow] Proteobacteria and Acetivibrio, [up arrow] Actinobaceria phyla, which Clostridiales
, [up arrow] could play a pathogenic Allobaculum, [up arrow] role in the development of Lactobacillus genus alcoholic liver disease, Firmicutes expanded [down arrow] Bacteroidetes greatly in the alcohol + phylum: [down arrow] LGG-fed group.
Three bacterial orders were present in all samples: Bacteroidales (mainly Prevotella and Porphyromonas); Clostridiales
(mainly Peptoniphilus, Anaerococcus, Parvimonas, Dialister, and Finegoldia); and Actinomycetales (Actinomyces, Actinobaculum, and Mobiluncus).
"Culture independent analysis of ileal mucosa reveals a selective increase in invasive Escherichia coli of novel phylogeny relative to depletion of Clostridiales
in Crohn's disease involving the ileum".
Unclassified sequences in the SILVA database ranged from 0.2 to 6.2% of total sequences, which were mostly assigned to unclassified Clostridiales
(data not shown).