The disparity of the Burgess Shale arthropod fauna and the limits of cladistic analysis
: Why we must strive to quantify morphospace.
was based primarily on the matrix of Fukushima et al.
Phylogenetic relationships of Pachycereeae: A cladistic analysis
based on anatomical-morphological data.
According to the polarization implied by the cladistic analysis
, the morphological and architectural evolution of Echinocardium, as depicted by the morphometric approach, appears to result from peramorphic processes.
majavensis populations by a cladistic analysis
of migration rates within each species (following Slatkin and Maddison 1989), which showed two migration events per generation for populations greater than 10,000 km apart.
Pending the discovery of additional taxa and a detailed cladistic analysis
(hopefully including molecular data), we suggest that the new species probably represents the sister group of Socalchemmis, as currently constituted.
myrsinites) exemplifies the power of cladistic analysis
and the weakness of an overall similarity approach to classification and evolutionary relationships.
and synthesis: principles and definitions, with a historical note on Adanson's Familles des plantes (1763-1764).
To select the best characters for cladistic analysis
, the resulting data matrix (Appendix 2, characters 1-31, no missing data) was analyzed using the computerized parsimony program Hennig86, using the search options mh* and bb*, a heuristic method for finding minimum-length trees that retains all the shortest trees, and a strict consensus tree was obtained by applying the NELSEN command of Hennig86 (Farris, 1988).
To generate a hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among these species, I performed a cladistic analysis
of 41 larval and adult characters for the nine species considered in this study (table 1).
These heterochronies are used as characters in a cladistic analysis
, and it is shown that although some are homoplasious, many provide synapomorphies of clades of exemplars re resenting genera in the Ingeae and Acacieae.
The subclass is divided into ten orders, whose relationships have been investigated by cladistic analysis
. Here, I opted for the most parsimonious cladogram available, that of Ho (1990), to represent the phylogeny of copepod orders.
This statistical cladistic analysis
revealed a very weak detectable geographic structure across the entire range of E.
The current study represents the first attempt to address global questions of fern phylogeny by numerical cladistic analysis
using morphological characters of both extinct and living taxa and to resolve the overall phylogenetic pattern for plants that we recognize as ferns s.1.
of restriction endonuclease cleavage maps within a maximum-likelihood framework.