at 10 ("To the casual observer, the private law sphere may, in many mixed jurisdictions, have the outward appearance of a 'pure' civil-law
contrasts countries with common and civil-law
origins, correlating common-law origins with .
Florida Bar members now have the ability to add "Florida civil-law
notary" and three "National Board of Legal Specialty Certification/National Board of Trial Advocacy" certifications to their profiles on The Florida Bar's website.
Pejovich distinguishes common law and civil law, arguing that precedents and the fear of being overturned by a higher court constrain common-law judges, whereas in civil-law
countries, being faithful to the laws that legislators enact and the threat of reversal by a higher court constrain the judges' behavior.
See in particular: Robert Kennedy, "McGrath, Maida and Michiels: Introduction to a Study of the Canonical and Civil-Law
Status of Church-Related Institutions in the United States," The Jurist 50 (1990) 351-401.