The role of Doppler ultrasound in diagnosing chronic rejection
is limited, although certain findings may indicate chronic changes.
50%-75% of recipients experience acute cellular rejection, most commonly in the first 90 days, while chronic rejection
(CR) occurs in 15% of patients (18).
Reduction in acute rejections decreases chronic rejection
graft failure in children: A report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS).
was managed with steroids and alteration of the main immunosuppressive agent.
However, the focus of this article is to review the airway pathology of lung transplantation, including surgical and infectious complications and acute and chronic rejection
, with special emphasis on those areas that directly affect clinical decision-making and management.
For example, the histologic features of chronic rejection
may resemble other causes of bile duct damage such as ischemic cholangiopathy.
Post renal transplant non-compliance is currently the third leading cause of renal graft loss with chronic rejection
the primary cause (Didlake et al., 1988).
On her 18th birthday, she was diagnosed with chronic rejection
of the lung.
However, chronic rejection
has emerged as the leading obstacle to better long-term survival and the shortage of suitable donor organs remains the primary limitation to the more widespread use of lung transplantation.
A positive crossmatch against T lymphocytes is an absolute contraindication against transplant owing to high hyper-acute rejection risks and to the association of chronic rejection
(GEBEL et al., 2003).
Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is the 143-amino acid cytokine primarily identified in rat cardiac allografts with chronic rejection
. (1) AIF-1 is involved in the inflammatory response associated with transplant rejection and has documented expression in various human tissues and cells, such as macrophages and peripheral blood leukocytes.
(11) Acute or chronic rejection
remains the most common reason for graft failure, especially for patients who have HLA mismatching.
It can be classified into acute and chronic rejection
. The difficulty with preventing rejection in composite tissue allotransplantation, especially in a complex graft such as the upper extremity, is the presence of multiple tissues with different antigenicities.
There are 2 major factors limiting long-term outcome in transplantation, namely, irreversible chronic rejection
and side effects of standard immunosuppression, such as nephrotoxicity, cardiovascular disease, opportunistic infection, and malignancy.
Diseases such as hypertension and diabetes are known to increase the likelihood of chronic rejection
and should be treated in the safest and most effective way possible--and these safe and effective treatments often include herbal medicines.