The initial concentrations of chlorobenzenes
found in the sewage sludge, prior to the installation of the plots, were: 0.
dissolved in an organic solvent is an important raw material and intermediate in the pharmaceutical, leather, dye and other industries, where it is widely used.
The key driving factors of chlorobenzenes
market are the growing demand for chlorobenzene
from the chemical industry for manufacture of various chemicals.
Mineral-catalyzed Fenton-like oxidation of sorbed chlorobenzenes
, Water Environment Research 69: 269-275.
For instance, significantly reduced bioaccumulation in clams (Macoma balthica) was observed for benzo[a]pyrene and penta chlorobenzenes
(PCBs) when contaminants were associated with activated carbon (a type of BC) compared with association with wood or diatoms (McLeod et al.
To facilitate intake estimation, pesticides were grouped into HCH compounds ([alpha]-HCH, [beta]-HCH, [gamma]-HCH, [delta]-HCH, [epsilon]-HCH), DDT and DDT metabolites [o,p-DDT, p,p'-DDT, o,p-DDE p,p'-DDE, o,p-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethane (o,p-DDD), p,p'-DDD], endosulfan compounds ([alpha]-, [beta]-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate), toxaphenes (toxaphene-26, toxaphene-50, toxaphene-62), aldrins (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin), heptachlor (heptachlor, cis-heptachlor epoxide, trans-heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor), chlordanes ([alpha]-chlordane, [beta]-chlordane, oxychlordane), and chlorobenzenes
2001; Novotny et al 2001, 2003; Hatvani and Mecs 2003 Benzopyrenes (PAHs) Incinerators Qiu and McFarland 1991 Chlorinated aromatic Transformers, lighting Gadd 2001 compounds: fixtures, paper pentachlorophenol products, chlorine (PCP), trichlorophenol bleaching, paints and (TCP), polychlorinated coatings biphenyls (PCBs) dioxins, chlorobenzenes
Copper/chromium Treated wood Humar et al.
In a review of thyrotoxicity and industrial chemicals, 77 chemicals are listed as having proven links to thyroid damage, these include PCBs, dioxins, chlorobenzenes
, phenols and related chemicals (Brucker-Davis 1998).
have been found at 97 of the 1177 National Priorities List sites.
36) The most severe contamination is found in polar bears, which exhibit very high levels of contamination by PCBs, DDT, chlordane, and chlorobenzenes
, and which suffer reproductive, neurobehavioral, and immune problems linked to this contamination.
Illustrated Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic-Monoaromatic Hydrocarbons, Chlorobenzenes
, and PCBs, vol.
Methods for analyzing organochlorine pesticides, chlorobenzenes
, and PCBs are based on those described by Norstrom et al.
Of the 500,000 metric tons of these wastes reported to EPA, more than 98 percent consist of tainted soil -- mostly from facilities that produced chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes
and chlorophenoxyl pesticides.
In addition to Agent Orange, more than 100 tanks and barrels at the Vertac site contain toluene (which may cause liver, kidney and central nervous system disorders), chlorophenols, benzene (causes leukemia), DDT, chlorobenzenes
(cause depression of the central nervous system), lindane, heavy metals, Aldrin, dieldrin, chlordane and toxophene (causes cancer and breakdown of the immune system).
Aquatic plants have shown their effectiveness in removing organic pollutants such as phenols, organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds, chlorobenzenes
, and even pesticides .