Its sole asset was a six-mile-wide harbor at the mouth of the Gulf of Chihli (Bohai).
Moreover, all of Russia's Pacific ports were blocked by ice in winter, while Chinese ports on the Gulf of Chihli, notably the excellent harbor at Port Arthur, were ice free.
Born into a prosperous family about 1490; he received a good education and obtained his doctorate degree in the civil service examinations (1517); following distinguished service as a civil and military administrator, he was appointed supreme commander of Nan Chihli
(Kiangsu [Jiangsu], Anhwei [Anhui], Chekiang [Zhejiang]; and Fukien [Fujian] provinces in southeast China), an area much troubled by pirate raids; personally led an ambush of a large pirate force at Wang-chiang-ching in Chekiang (1555), routing them, and capturing 1,900, all of whom were beheaded; the main body escaped, and for this reason, and possibly because he had not been sufficiently deferential to the army inspector general the previous year, he was dismissed from his posts, arrested, tried, and executed.
Birth and early career unknown; after a distinguished military and civil career in the Imperial service, he was given command of the Wuyi army in Chihli
province (region surrounding Beijing) (c.