(5) Compare Sebeok (1964:356, 363) on the tight texture of charms among the Cheremis
of eastern Russia.
1956, Studies in Cheremis
. The Supernatural, New York (Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology 22).
Conquest in the broader sense of the pacification of the outlying population, the Cheremis
of Vetluga and Rutka basins (the Lugovaia storona, to the west) and the Tatar princes and mirzas (on the Arskaia storona, to the east) took until 1557, however (30, 37-38).
For the sake of brevity and also because the given problem does not require an analysis of the full paradigm of the prohibitive in Cheremis we treat here only the 2Sg forms.
In Cheremis there exists only a limited version of frontback harmony, restricted to the domain of the labials.
During the first phase of the project having lasted from September 2010 until July 2011, the terminology of ten subjects was created in five Finno-Ugric languages: in the two official Mordovian languages (officially called Erza and Moksha), in Mari (Cheremis
), Komi (Zyrjen) and Udmurt (Votjak) languages (unfortunately and hopefully only temporarily the Karelian language could not be included in this work).
In addition to the description of their customs and way of life, linguistic information is also provided about the people (it is known that one of the informants was the Mordvin Nikon): Witsen established well ahead of his time that the Mordvin and the Cheremis people are linguistically related (and he compared this relatedness to that of the Low and High German people).
The dictionary contains Russian, Tatar, Cheremis, Chuvash, Votyak, Komi-Permyak, Komi-Zyrian and Mordvin entries.
1969, The Syntactical Distribution of the Cheremis
Genitive II, Helsinki (MSFOu 146).
In Cheremis and in the Finnic languages unmarked objects next to indicative finite verbs are unattested, but in Lapp, the language most closely related to Finnic, they are found in the plural, as 11 shows:
In Hungarian this is found in archaic and dialectal varieties, in Cheremis the vicinity of an infinitive is actually the context in which unmarked object occurs most frequently, and it also generally typifies the Finnic languages (again with the exception of Livonian, which only has unmarked object in the "passive voice").
This occurs especially in the 3pssg mainly in Cheremis
[Mari] [--] Vogul [Mansi], Ostyak [Hanti] and Samoyedic, infrequently also in Mordvin.
However, the comparatively late development of the decimal system in the Finno-Ugric languages may be illustrated by foreign (Aryan) origin of the numerals 'hundred' (FU *?ata) and 'thousand' (FU *sasra), also--'ten' in Permian (*das < Aryan) and--what is especially important here--by FU *luka 'count, counted' with derivatives meaning 'ten' in Lappish, Cheremis
and Vogul (Honti 1993 : 120).
Again, rare or not, it seems to have happened in the case of, for example, Cheremis
, and grammatical borrowing is, in general, not unknown (Wilkins 1996 : 112).
More precisely, in Budenz 1878/1879 : 196 the Ugric languages were divided into two major groups: a) North-Ugric, which includes: Lapp, Permian (Zyrian and Votyak), Ob-Ugric (Vogul and Ostyak) and Hungarian; b) South-Ugric, which includes Balto-Finnic, Mordvin and Cheremis
. This division is motivated by the distribution of initial n- (North-Ugric) vs n- (South-Ugric); for more detail on this topic and on other types of Uralic family tree see Sutrop 2000.