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The area postrema is located at the caudal end of the floor of the fourth ventricle known as Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone (CTZ).
Recently, our understanding of the function of non-CB chemoreceptors was greatly expanded by the demonstration that the TRPA1 channel is an essential element for [O.
Chemoreceptors of insects mainly consist of olfactory receptors (ORs) and gustatory receptors (GRs), which are located in the dendritic membrane of neurons.
Crustaceans possess chemoreceptor neurons (CRNs) that are well tuned to stimuli of main interest: predatory crustaceans are preferentially sensitive to nitrogen-containing compounds (Zimmer-Faust, 1993; Derby and Sorensen, 2008; Schmidt and Mellon, 2011), while herbivores or omnivores are sensitive to carbohydrates (Trott and Robertson, 1984; Rittschof and Buswell, 1989; Corotto and O'Brien, 2002; Corotto et al.
Peripheral chemoreceptors (PC), located in the body of the common carotid artery and the aortic arch, are the major oxygen sensors in the human body [1].
This stimulation of the peripheral chemoreceptors induces an increase in the activity of the autonomous sympathetic nervous system (ANS) and in the production on catecholamine.
Beneficial effects of oxygen could be related to changes in chemoreceptor stimulation, changes in breathing pattern, and/or stimulation of receptors related to gas flow through the upper airway.
While the primary goal of the project is to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying acute O2 sensing by arterial chemoreceptors (carotid body CB- and adrenal medulla AM-), we will also extend our study to other organs (e.
The most important or dominant sensors for the control of breathing or respiratory drive are the central chemoreceptors in the medulla of the brain, and peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies in the arterial blood system.
Additionally, different central and peripheral chemoreceptors including carotid bodies and aortic bodies detect metabolites being discharged, and transduce a signal causing an action potential.
These structures are cuticular extensions, with shafts of different shapes and sizes, that can function as mechanoreceptors and/or chemoreceptors.
During wakefulness, the body responds to hypoxia and hypercapnia via peripheral chemoreceptors that communicate with the brain to initiate a breath.
Pulmonary NE cells create part of the APUD system and pulmonary neuroendocrine system, playing a major role in the development of lung tissue in embryos and behaving as chemoreceptors in post-embryonic life [3, 4, 6].
Chemoreceptors pass on electrical impulses to the brain, which then interprets the impulses as specific odors.